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Social Psychology Test 1
Terms in this set (68)
behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete stimulus while ignoring other perceivable stimuli
total amount of mental effort being used in working memory
simple rules of thumb that people often use to form judgments and make decisions; think of them as mental shortcuts
When people estimate how likely or how frequent an event is on the basis of its availability
ex. people overestimate their likelihood of dying in a dramatic event such as a tornado or a terrorist attack. Not heart attack or stroke, etc.
An individual object or person has a high representativeness for a category if that object or person is very similar to a prototype of that category.
ex. many people may underestimate how common it is for people to wear hoodies, and overestimate how often criminals wear them
tendency to think about events according to "what might have been" is known as _______
emphasize dispositional or personality-based explanations
ex. a person aces a test, an ___________ might be the conclusion that she must be very smart
People with an _________ _____ _______ attribute positive events to global, stable, internal causes and negative events to specific, unstable, external causes.
optimistic explanatory style
_________-states that people attribute behavior to the factors that covary with that behavior.
This means that the "causes" they identify are present when the behavior occurs and absent when it does not.
The covariation principle
to assume that the behavior of another person is due to a trait of that person, underestimating the role of the situation or context
fundamental attribution error
tendency of an individual to take credit by making dispositional or internal attributions for positive outcomes but situational or external attributions for negative outcomes is known as _______
self serving bias
______ ______occurs when a person tends to consistently believe that, compared to other people, they are more likely to experience positive events and less likely to experience negative events
people believing that those around them share their same views at a much higher percentage than they actually do
false consensus bias
attributional type of cognitive bias in social psychology that describes how people tend to view their qualities, traits, and personal attributes as unique when in reality they are no
false uniqueness effect
belief that people get the outcomes they deserve
when we see or think of a concept, a mental representation or "________" is activated that brings to mind other related information, usually unconsciously
________theory suggests that we have mental representations for specific social situations.
ex. when meeting someone for the first time, you would interact with them in a certain way depending on your culture.
-the degree to which a particular social object stands out relative to other social objects in a situation
-higher the _______ of an object, the more likely that schemas for that object will be made accessible
________ refers to any experience immediately prior to a situation that causes a schema to be more accessible.
ex. watching a scary movie may increase the accessibility of frightening schemas, increasing the likelihood that a person will perceive shadows and background noises as threats.
______ ______occur when information that is related to the theme of a certain memory but was not actually a part of the original episode, becomes associated with the event
_________ is a question that suggests the answer or contains the information the examiner is looking for.
Failure to notice something that is completely visible because of a lack of attention
emphasize situational factors
ex. a person aces a test, an _________ might be the conclusion that she must have received extra help before the test or that the test was too easy
A buffalo seems small after seeing an elephant. Which of the following is relevant to that phenomenon?
anchoring and adjusting heuristic
Muhammad assumed the man in the tuxedo was the host of the restaurant. Muhammad was relying on what?
After repeatedly hearing the pizza commercial jingle, Slade orders pizza for dinner. This likely occurred because of what?
Sierra expects that service will be good at the restaurant, despite having terrible service there in the past. What type of thinking does this demonstrate?
optimistic explanatory style
our evaluation of a person, an idea, or an object
first component of attitude:
an affective component
second component of attitude:
the effect of the attitude on ____________
third component of attitude:
belief and knowledge
Attitude that reflect our subconscious based feelings
says that a person's behavioral intentions and attitudes about a specific behavior are determined by being able to understand that person's behavioral and normative beliefs as well as the social norms for the society that they are within.
(1) a person's attitude, (2) their perceived behavioral control, and (3) subjective norms of society; all 3 of these factors influence (4) a person's intention
Theory of Planned Behavior
Pavlov's experiment, first of the four factors of classical conditioning:
the dogs' natural salivation in response to seeing or smelling their food
Pavlov's experiment, second of the four factors of classical conditioning:
the sight or smell of the food itself
Pavlov's experiment, third of the four factors of classical conditioning:
ringing of the buzzer, which previously had no association with food
Pavlov's experiment, fourth of the four factors of classical conditioning:
salivation of the dogs in response to the ringing of the buzzer, even when no food was present
in _______ _________ organisms learn to associate a behavior and its consequence
Spirit, a dolphin at the National Aquarium in Baltimore, does a flip in the air when her trainer blows a whistle. The consequence is that she gets a fish.
psychological discomfort arising from holding two or more inconsistent attitudes, behaviors, or cognitions (thoughts, beliefs, or opinions)
--when we experience a conflict in our behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs that runs counter to our positive self-perceptions, we experience psychological discomfort called _____
Social Judgement Theory- the range of ideas that a person sees as unreasonable or objectionable
latitude of rejection
Social Judgement Theory- the range of ideas that a person sees as reasonable or worthy of consideration
latitude of acceptance
Social Judgement Theory- the range of ideas that a person sees as neither acceptable nor objectionable
latitude of non-commitment
states that behaviors that are followed by consequences that are satisfying to the organism are more likely to be repeated, and behaviors that are followed by unpleasant consequences are less likely to be repeated
law of effect
A route to persuasion that works best when the target of persuasion, or the audience, is analytical and willing to engage in processing the information
An indirect route to persuasion that uses peripheral cues to associate positivity with the message
pattern of behavior that is expected of a person in a given setting or group
a person's knowledge about the sequence of events expected in a specific setting
technique that begins with an initial large request that the subject is not expected to comply with. The large request is then followed by a second, more reasonable, request.
door in the face
teqnique where the subject is asked to perform a small request, and after agreeing, a larger request is made
foot in the door
technique that gains compliance by offering the subject something at a low initial cost. After the subject agrees to the initial cost, the requester increases the cost at the last moment
technique that involves gaining someone's personal approval so they will be more likely to agree with a request
theory that states the essence of obedience consists in the fact that a person comes to view themselves as the instrument for carrying out another person's wishes, and they therefore no longer see themselves as responsible for their actions.
Agentic State Theory
normative beliefs about what groups think one should do and motivation
This is a cognitive bias that causes people to believe that their thoughts and emotions are more apparent to others than is actually the case
illusion of transparency
a ____is a facial expression that occurs in half of a second or less.
The tendency to overestimate our performance and capabilities and see ourselves in a more positive light than others see us
self enhancement bias
The tendency for people to underestimate their performance, undervalue capabilities, and see events in a way that puts them in a more negative light
A cycle that occurs when people automatically behave as if an established stereotype is accurate, which leads to reactive behavior from the stereotyped individual that confirms the stereotype
occurs when initial negative perceptions lead us to view later interactions as negative
occurs when initial positive perceptions lead us to view later interactions as positive
This happens when a person who is lying gets a thrill out of being able to successfully deceive people
smile of pure, natural enjoyment
total amount of mental effort being used in working memory
when people estimate how likely or how frequent an event is on the basis of its availability, they are using the
The encoding of details like time, space, frequency, and the meaning of words
Facial expressions are not only the results of our emotions but are also capable of influencing our emotions
facial feedback hypothesis
idea that when people make sacrifices to pursue a goal, the effort is often rationalized by elevating the attractiveness of the goal because we do not want to have wasted time and effort on something we realize was not worth it
justification of effort
route to persuasion that works best when the target of persuasion, or the audience, is analytical and willing to engage in processing the information
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