ANTH 1102 Test 1 Birch

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Terms in this set (63)
Linguistic AnthropologyStudy of how language influences social lifeLinguisticsScientific study of language and its structureCultural AnthropologyStudy of human society and culture. Describes, analyzes, interprets, and explains social and cultural similarities/differencesBiological AnthropologyStudy of human biological variation in time and space. Includes evolution, genetics, growth/development, and primatologyAnthropological ArchaeologyStudy of human behavior through natural remains- with the primary goal to explain past human behaviorApplied AnthropologyApplication of anthropological data, perspectives, theory, and methods to identify, assess, and solve contemporary social problemsDevelopment AnthropologyBranch of applied anthropology that focuses o social issues in and the cultural dimensions of economic developmentSeriation(Relative Dating) Placing objects in a chronological sequence based on changes in for or style Products of a given period/place tend to have a distinctive style/design. And the changes are gradualStratigraphy(Relative Dating) Science that examines the ways in which earth sediments are deposited in demarcated layers known as strata time sequence with oldest on bottom and youngest on top. Law of Superposition (Length is space, Depth is time)Absolute DatingDating techniques that establish dates in numbers or ranges of numbers. Precise calendar dates. Carbon-14 (living things known life, not rock), Dendrochronology (tree rings as age and time)FossilsActual object remains (bones), traces, impressions (footprints) of ancient life (once living organism preserved in the earth's crust)FossilizationHard parts of an organism (what can be fossilized- bones, teeth, shells, woody tissues of plants- not skin or soft tissues)Paleoanthropologygoal to understand process of human evolution through fossils and fossilizationMedical AnthropologyUnites biological and cultural anthropologists in the study of disease, health problems, health care systems, and theories about illness in different cultures and ethnic groupsDiseaseScientifically identified threat such as bacterium, virus, parasite, or other pathogen (Biological)Illnesscondition of poor health as felt by an individual and which is culturally constructed (Cultural)Forensic AnthropologyIdentification of deceased individuals age, sex, stature, ancestry, trauma, disease cause of death can be determinedApplied ArchaeologySurvey and excavation to make decisions about significance and preservation of thingsGarbage ProjectHousehold Consumption and waste study that led to the modern recycling movement, most common thing thrown out was paperCultural Resource ManagementBranch of applied archaeology aimed at preserving sites threatened by damn, highways, and other projectsExcavationDigging through the layers of deposits that make up an archaeological or fossil site. Recording and removal of things from the surrounding mix4 fields of anthropologyCultural Anthro, Biological Anthro, Linguistic Anthro, Anthropological ArchaeologyFifth sub-discipline of anthropologyApplied AnthropologyCentral focus of UGA's Anthropology departmentEcological Anthropology- Human Environment Interaction, study of cultural adaptations to environment Environmental Anthropology- conservation, sustainabilityHow is Anthropology holistic and comparativeIt is a cross culture comparison. It is holistic because you use your own anthropological discipline as well as help from other disciplines to study a culture and then compare it to others to see how one culture can survive completely different within the same realm. You cannot step out of your own culture you will always compare. You have to compare to understandWhat is armchair anthropologyEarly 19th century anthropology that used information collected by others to propose theories about other cultures. It was mainly focused on the primitive societies and was based on biased accountsWhy are classical cultures displayed in fine art museums rather than natural history museums?Artifacts from classical cultures are viewed more as art and more sophisticated. They are not really viewed as an insight to the past. Primitive cultures would be found inside natural history museums however because they are considered more animalistic.What are cabinets of curiosities and their relationship to early anthropology?Cabinets inside people's homes showing different items and artifacts from different cultures. They would take these things and literally put them inside a cabinet. They were the foundation for museum studies and museum interests because it was the first time people were able to go and see stuff like this.Importance of Franz BoasDeveloped the four field approach and used the scientific method to develop and test theories about human behavior instead of using findings from others to propose theoriesWhat two major questions did Franz Boas propose?Why are the tribes and nations of the world different? How have the present differences developed? These two questions sparked what anthropology is focused onDifference between enculturation and acculturation?Enculturation is a child learning his/her own culture and Acculturation is the process of changing a culture from close interaction with anotherWhat are the characteristics of cultureIt is... Shared- members of groups, not an attribute of one individual Learned- by experience and other members Symbolic- verbal/nonverbal characteristics unique to a culture i.e. flag, belief, custom- aspects of culture and what they mean to themThree purposes of anthropological study of cultureBridge social differences, give a voice to under-represented people, to encourage respect for diversityAnthropological Archaeology vs. Study of Art HistoryArt history isn't really concerned with social practices and behaviors and focuses more on the art work itself. Anthropological Archaeology does have to do with the course of history and is more in tune with understanding the practices and behaviors.Two types of symbols used to communicate cultureLanguage and nonverbal communication like flags, food, dressThere different types of cultureNational Culture- beliefs and behaviors shared by a nations citizens like baseball and freedom of speech for America Subculture- Different symbols and traditions within particular groups in a society like punk and hipster Popular Culture- mainstream, heavily effected by the mediaWho does ground work before building on landArchaeologistsTwo concepts that allow anthropologists to study anthropology holistically and comparatively-Adaptation- process by which organisms cope with environmental forces and stress Variation- biological and cultural differences between human populationsHow is theory defined in social sciencesA set of ideas formulated to explain something. It is the best explanation we have that is grounded in science. Not a speculation, just the best explanation available.How is scientific method employed differently in the social sciences vs. Hard sciences?Addresses a certain level of uncertainty. You cannot just make a mathematical factual answer. It is based on visible processes.What fields does anthropology routinely pull from?Genetics, Economics, Chem, Philosophy, Psych. The common thread amongst all fields- understanding aspects of human behavior with a "why" approach and using the past to find out different thingsTypes of applied anthropologyMedical Anthro, Forensic Anthro, Applied ArchaeologyWhy do we study the past?To have a better understanding of our lives. Why we do what we do and how it came to be. How we evolved and adaptedArchaeologist vs. PaleoanthropologistArchaeologist- study past human activity through material culture people have left behind. Don't rely on fossils and use past cultural practices Paleoanthropologist- study fossil remains in order to understand and explain human evolutionWhat do archaeologists use to study the past instead of myths and legends?Dig to see what they find. Scientific method and material remainsWhat does it mean that archaeology is interdisciplinary?It can relate to other disciplines uses others such as... to help understand things like biological similarities and differencesWhy is fossil record fragmentaryIt is hard for things to be fossilized. A lot of different variables have to be present and it is a rare occurrence. Many sites also haven't been discovered yetMethods that archaeologists and paleoanthropologist use..Systematic survey and excavationRelative dating vs Absolute DatingRelative Dating does order and chronology referenced in position to something else seriation stratigraphy/Law of Superposition Absolute Dating- Specific date, calendrical date or specific range of years rather than an order compared to other things Carbon-14 dendrochronolgyHow do archaeology and paleoanthropology overlap?Both find fossils through excavation and systematic surveyWhy do businesses seek knowledge of anthropologists?They can get to know the consumers better and study their behaviors to be able to know who to market to them. They can spend time inside the company to help the owners understand the subcultures within the company and can study behavior and patterns of workers that are problematic and find out how to work them out and improve the workplace environment. They will be able to travel through the different levels of the work place to really solve and address all issuesGarbologyDr. Rathije Inspired modern day recycling movement Studied human waste and consumption Paper most common waste"radiocarbon revolution" significancePresented an opportunity for researchers to actually produce calendrical dates and not have to rely on relative dating to dendrochronology. It allowed for absolute dating