Chapter 4 (T&E): South Asia, 3000 BCE-600 BCE
Terms and concepts from the reading
chief god of the Aryans, associated with war and thunder
Indo-European migrants into South Asia after 1500 BCE
Migrants throughout Europe and West Asia who brought with them their language(s), horses and warlike culture
Linguistic group who occupied South Asia prior to the Indo-European migrations; the Harappans belonged to this group, as do the residents of the southern regions of the Indian sub-continent
location of the earliest civilization in South Asia
major city for which the Harappan culture is named
mountains which separate the Indus River valley from Central Asia
mountains which separate the Ganges River valley and South Asia from the Tibetan plateau and Central Asia
wheat, barley, cotton
Harappan domesticated animals
chickens, sheep, goats, cattle
animals first domesticated in South Asia
crop first found in South Asia
major city of Harappan culture; means "mound of the dead"
signature animal Indo-Europeans brought with them
the primary wealth of the Aryans
the holy language of the Aryans and later the Hindus
everyday language of the Aryans which becomes Urdu, Bengali, Hindi, etc.
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
The first and most important of the Vedas, it has historic, spiritual and social information about the Aryans
Aryan name for indigenous people of Indus valley region; regarded as socially inferior to Aryans
Sanskrit term for chief or king
region around the upper Indus River
heart of South Asian population and civilization after the Harappans
plateau which covers most of the Indian sub-continent south of the Ganges River valley
a relatively rigid class into which you are born; this governed all relationships in India
literally "color," it is the Hindu term for caste
highest "second-born" varna; priests and teachers
second "second-born" varna; warriors and rulers
third "second-born" varna; merchants, craftsmen, and land-owners.
fourth varna; not "second-born" but laborers
occupational group which provided rules for religion and conduct; there were thousands in each varna
legendary ancestor of all humans who survived a great flood; he also provided humans with rules for proper conduct
Lawbook of Manu
codification of early Hindu law attributed to Manu
sometimes "suttee," it is the act whereby a devout Hindu widow shows her devotion to her husband by joining him on his funeral pyre
the term which we give to a diverse set of beliefs which originated in South Asia from the blend of Aryan and Dravidian religion and culture
Aryan god who judged the behavior of mortals and preserved the cosmic order.
"House of Clay"
the place of misery to which the Aryans believed poorly behaved humans would be condemned
"World of the Fathers"
the heaven to which those judged worthy would pass after death, according to the Aryans
The period of South Asian history which began with the migrations of the Aryans (singing the Vedas!) and ended app. 600 BCE
hallucinogenic consumed by Aryan priests as they performed ritual sacrifices; it brought the gods into the sacrifice
offering to the gods in exchange for divine support, performed by brahmins; the most important source of power during the Vedic Age
the passing of a soul into another body after death
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
commentaries on the Vedas that are considered sacred texts in the Hindu religion
in Hinduism he was the universal soul, and in the trinity of gods in Hinduism he was the Creator
the Hindu cycle of death and rebirth; in Buddhism means rebirth
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths; union with Brahman
a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind