Chapter 4 (T&E): South Asia, 3000 BCE-600 BCE

49 terms by Big_WHAPster

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Terms and concepts from the reading


chief god of the Aryans, associated with war and thunder


Indo-European migrants into South Asia after 1500 BCE


Migrants throughout Europe and West Asia who brought with them their language(s), horses and warlike culture


Linguistic group who occupied South Asia prior to the Indo-European migrations; the Harappans belonged to this group, as do the residents of the southern regions of the Indian sub-continent

Indus River

location of the earliest civilization in South Asia


major city for which the Harappan culture is named

Hindu Kush

mountains which separate the Indus River valley from Central Asia


mountains which separate the Ganges River valley and South Asia from the Tibetan plateau and Central Asia

Harappan crops

wheat, barley, cotton

Harappan domesticated animals

chickens, sheep, goats, cattle


animals first domesticated in South Asia


crop first found in South Asia


major city of Harappan culture; means "mound of the dead"


signature animal Indo-Europeans brought with them


the primary wealth of the Aryans


the holy language of the Aryans and later the Hindus


everyday language of the Aryans which becomes Urdu, Bengali, Hindi, etc.


Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.

Rig Veda

The first and most important of the Vedas, it has historic, spiritual and social information about the Aryans


Aryan name for indigenous people of Indus valley region; regarded as socially inferior to Aryans


Sanskrit term for chief or king


region around the upper Indus River

Ganges River

heart of South Asian population and civilization after the Harappans


plateau which covers most of the Indian sub-continent south of the Ganges River valley


a relatively rigid class into which you are born; this governed all relationships in India


literally "color," it is the Hindu term for caste


highest "second-born" varna; priests and teachers


second "second-born" varna; warriors and rulers


third "second-born" varna; merchants, craftsmen, and land-owners.


fourth varna; not "second-born" but laborers


occupational group which provided rules for religion and conduct; there were thousands in each varna


legendary ancestor of all humans who survived a great flood; he also provided humans with rules for proper conduct

Lawbook of Manu

codification of early Hindu law attributed to Manu


sometimes "suttee," it is the act whereby a devout Hindu widow shows her devotion to her husband by joining him on his funeral pyre


the term which we give to a diverse set of beliefs which originated in South Asia from the blend of Aryan and Dravidian religion and culture


Aryan god who judged the behavior of mortals and preserved the cosmic order.

"House of Clay"

the place of misery to which the Aryans believed poorly behaved humans would be condemned

"World of the Fathers"

the heaven to which those judged worthy would pass after death, according to the Aryans

Vedic Age

The period of South Asian history which began with the migrations of the Aryans (singing the Vedas!) and ended app. 600 BCE


hallucinogenic consumed by Aryan priests as they performed ritual sacrifices; it brought the gods into the sacrifice


offering to the gods in exchange for divine support, performed by brahmins; the most important source of power during the Vedic Age


the passing of a soul into another body after death


belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death


commentaries on the Vedas that are considered sacred texts in the Hindu religion


in Hinduism he was the universal soul, and in the trinity of gods in Hinduism he was the Creator


the Hindu cycle of death and rebirth; in Buddhism means rebirth


(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation


The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths; union with Brahman


a system of exercises practiced as part of the Hindu discipline to promote control of the body and mind

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