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Chapter 3 - The biological bases of Behavior

STUDY
PLAY
Neurons
individual cells in the nervous system that RECEIVE, INTEGRATE, and TRANSMIT information
Glia Cells
Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons
Neural Impulse
Essentially a signal that moves through the neuron
They occur by means of an action potential
Resting potential = - 70 millivolts
Action Potential
* Stimulation that causes the cell membrane to open briefly
*Very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon
ALL of NONE Law
Once a neural impulse FIRES, they fire (there is no going back)
The STRENGTH of the stimulus may affect the RATE at which the neuron fires
Neurotransmitters
Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
What are the 4 types of neurotransmitters?
*Acetylcholine
* Serotonin
* Dopamine
* Norepinephrine
What behavior does ACETYLCHOLINE elicit?
Movement
What behavior does SEROTONIN elicit?
Sleep/wakefulness
Depression
What behavior does DOPAMINE elicit?
Depression
What behavior does NOREPINEPHRINE elicit?
Schizophrenia
What are the TWO types of Nervous Systems?
Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
What are the TWO parts of the PNS?
Somatic Nervous System - (voluntary muscles)

Autonomic Nervous System - (involuntary muscles such as the heart)
What are the TWO parts of the CNS?
Brain
Spinal Cord
What are the 4 lobes of the brain and what does each provide?
* Frontal - Movement
* Temporal - Auditory
* Parietal - Touch
* Occipital - Vision
What does the HINDBRAIN contain?
Medulla - breathing, circulation
Pons - sleep and arousal
Cerebellum - movement and coordination
What does the FOREBRAIN contain?
** Largest part of the brain

Thalamus
Hypothalamus
Limbic System
Cerebrum

& other structures
Function of Thalamus
Relay center for senses (except SMELL)
Function of Hypothalamus
Regulates the basic biological needs - 4 Fs

Flighting
Fleeing
Feeding
Fornicating

Median Forebrain bundle - bunch of axons that are found in the hypothalamus
What are the two components of the Limbic System?
- Amygdala *deals with emotions; learned FEAR responses

- Hippocampal Area (Hippocampus) * deals with memory
What does the Limbic System include?
It includes PLEASURE CENTERS in the brain
What is included in the MIDBRAIN?
Reticular Formation - contributes to sleep and arousal

**Important Dopamine projections originate here (involved in voluntary movements)
** Integration of sensory inputs
** PARKINSONS DISEASE