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individual cells in the nervous system that RECEIVE, INTEGRATE, and TRANSMIT information

Glia Cells

Cells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neurons

Neural Impulse

Essentially a signal that moves through the neuron
They occur by means of an action potential
Resting potential = - 70 millivolts

Action Potential

* Stimulation that causes the cell membrane to open briefly
*Very brief shift in a neuron's electrical charge that travels along an axon


Once a neural impulse FIRES, they fire (there is no going back)
The STRENGTH of the stimulus may affect the RATE at which the neuron fires


Chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another

What are the 4 types of neurotransmitters?

* Serotonin
* Dopamine
* Norepinephrine

What behavior does ACETYLCHOLINE elicit?


What behavior does SEROTONIN elicit?


What behavior does DOPAMINE elicit?


What behavior does NOREPINEPHRINE elicit?


What are the TWO types of Nervous Systems?

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What are the TWO parts of the PNS?

Somatic Nervous System - (voluntary muscles)

Autonomic Nervous System - (involuntary muscles such as the heart)

What are the TWO parts of the CNS?

Spinal Cord

What are the 4 lobes of the brain and what does each provide?

* Frontal - Movement
* Temporal - Auditory
* Parietal - Touch
* Occipital - Vision

What does the HINDBRAIN contain?

Medulla - breathing, circulation
Pons - sleep and arousal
Cerebellum - movement and coordination

What does the FOREBRAIN contain?

** Largest part of the brain

Limbic System

& other structures

Function of Thalamus

Relay center for senses (except SMELL)

Function of Hypothalamus

Regulates the basic biological needs - 4 Fs


Median Forebrain bundle - bunch of axons that are found in the hypothalamus

What are the two components of the Limbic System?

- Amygdala *deals with emotions; learned FEAR responses

- Hippocampal Area (Hippocampus) * deals with memory

What does the Limbic System include?

It includes PLEASURE CENTERS in the brain

What is included in the MIDBRAIN?

Reticular Formation - contributes to sleep and arousal

**Important Dopamine projections originate here (involved in voluntary movements)
** Integration of sensory inputs

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