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Arts and Humanities
religion articles 1-9 study guide
Terms in this set (33)
Why are human beings unique among all of God's creation?
Human beings are unique among God's creation because we are created in his image and are given a spiritual soul, a divine gift that is unique to us. By giving us a soul, God enables us to be in loving communion with him beyond limitations of time or space.
Briefly describe the three God-given gifts that allow us to live in true, loving communion with God.
God endows us with the gifts of a soul, intellect, and free will so that we may live in true communion with him.
• Our soul, or spiritual principle, is immortal and makes us most like God. God creates our soul and unites it with our body at conception. The soul is our seat of consciousness and freedom, and it enables us to be in communion with God. It also lives on after death and will be reunited with our resurrected body at the Last Judgment.
• God's gift of intellect gives us the ability to see and understand the order of things created by God and to know and understand him through creation. Intellect also allows us to distinguish what is good from what only appears to be good. Intellect helps us understand how to be in communion with God.
• Free will is the gift from God that allows us to choose between the various actions that our reason (or intellect) enables us to understand. We are held accountable for our actions and moral choices. Free will is the basis for moral responsibility. God gives us free will so that we are free to choose to be in communion with him.
What are some factors that can diminish our freedom and lessen the moral responsibility of our resulting actions?
Factors that diminish our ability to make free choices include unexpected behavioral side effects of a medication, psychological factors such as fear, and strong social pressures. None of these excuse bad behavior, but such factors can prevent us from acting with perfect freedom when we make moral decisions.
What is concupiscence?
Concupiscence is the tendency of all human beings to sin, as a result of Original Sin. Original Sin weakened our human nature, so that things that should come naturally are more challenging.
The state of complete harmony of our first parents with themselves, with each other, and with all of creation.
The gift from God that allows human beings to choose from among various actions, for which we are held accountable. It is the basis for moral responsibility.
The original state of human beings in their relationship with God, sharing in the divine life in full communion with him.
what makes us most like God, united with our physical body at the moment of conception; the seat of human consciousness and freedom.
The divine gift that gives us the ability to see and understand the order of things that God places within creation and to know and understand God through the created order.
From the Latin origo, meaning "beginning" or "birth." The term has two meanings: (1) the sin of the first human beings, who disobeyed God's command by choosing to follow their own will and so lost their original holiness and became subject to death, (2) the fallen state of human nature that affects every person born into the world.
how do we gain merit in the sign of God?
There is nothing we can do to earn merit in God's sight. He doesn't need anything we can give. But everything that we are and have is already a gift from him. The merit we have in God's sight is his free gift to us and, at the same time, comes from our acceptance of his gift and our participation in his plan of salvation.
Describe what it means to live the Beatitudes.
To "live the Beatitudes" means to live according to Christ's guidance for entering into the Kingdom of God—our vocation as Christians, and the goal of our existence. The Beatitudes bring meaning to our moral choices. When we live according to the Beatitudes, we begin to experience on earth the happiness that God has wanted us to know from the beginning of creation. Living the Beatitudes thereby prepares us for eternal happiness and joy of life in Heaven, in perfect communion with the Trinity.
How does God provide us with the direction and the strength to live a life of beatitude?
To give us direction and strength as we seek to live the Beatitudes, God gives us Scripture and Tradition to show us the way to live as disciples. He also sends his grace to us through Baptism, the Eucharist, and the other Sacraments. Grace helps us move toward the goal of Christian life: union with the Holy Trinity in Heaven.
What law do the Ten Commandments summarize? What is another name for the Ten Commandments?
The Ten Commandments summarize the Old Law, the Divine Law (or Law of Moses) revealed in the Old Testament. The Old Law was the first stage of God's Revelation about how we are to live as people made in his image. Another name for the Ten Commandments is the Decalogue.
Why is the New Law called "New"?
The New Law is called "New" because it fulfills and completes the Old Law.
Give an overview of the content of the Sermon on the Mount.
In the Sermon on the Mount, Jesus teaches the New Law as part of the New Covenant. He begins by introducing the Beatitudes: the values we need to live a moral life, to satisfy the desire for happiness instilled in each of us by God, and to become citizens of his Kingdom. Next Jesus teaches us that the purpose of living the New Law is both to bring ourselves into communion with God and to show others the way to that communion. Finally he teaches on a variety of topics by quoting a law from the Old Testament and then teaching the true meaning of that law, showing how the New Law fulfills, or realizes the full potential of, the Old Law
Divine Law revealed in the Old Testament, summarized in the Ten Commandments. Also called the Law of Moses.
Divine Law revealed in the New Testament through the life and teaching of Jesus Christ and through the witness and teaching of the Apostles; perfects the Old Law and brings it to fulfillment. Also called the Law of Love.
Our vocation as Christians, the goal of our existence. It is true blessedness or happiness which we experience partially here on earth and perfectly in Heaven
The work of salvation accomplished by Jesus Christ mainly through his life, Passion, death, Resurrection, and Ascension.
The pattern of specific events in human history that reveal God's presence and saving actions.
Why is every person obliged to follow moral law?
We all are obliged to follow moral law because it comes from God, prevents us from falling prey to evil, and urges us to do what is good. It is a rational expression of Eternal Law, the order in creation that reflects God's will and purpose. Listening to our conscience and following the moral law enables us to live in loving communion with God.
Name five different types or expressions of moral law.
Five types of moral law are as follows: natural moral law, moral law revealed in the Old Testament (Old Law), moral law revealed by Christ in the New Testament (New Law), the Precepts of the Church, and canon law.
Describe the natural law.
Natural law is the moral law that can be understood through the use of reason. It is our God-given ability to understand what it means to be in right relationship with God, other people, the world, and ourselves. Natural law is grounded in our participation in God's wisdom and goodness because we are created in the divine likeness. This ability to use our reason to do good and avoid evil is universal—it does not depend on a particular religious belief, nor does it change over time.
Why is natural moral law important?
Natural moral law gives each of us a natural orientation to live a moral life that is pleasing to God. It makes it possible for one to be saved even if he or she has never heard of God's Revelation through Scripture and Tradition. Natural moral law is also important because it forms the basis of civil laws that we all can agree are necessary, regardless of our religion or culture.
Describe the two types of Church law.
Two types of Church law are the Precepts of the Church and canon law. The Precepts of the Church (sometimes called the commandments of the Church) are the basic obligations that the laws of the Church dictate for all Catholics. In general they require us to participate in the Church's sacramental life and in her mission in the world. These precepts are the minimum we must do to grow in love of God and neighbor.
Canon law is the official body of laws that provide good order in the visible body of the Church. It governs the relationships among members of the Church and matters that affect her mission. Canon law is based on Eternal Law and applies its truths to matters in the Church community.
What is infallibility?
Infallibility is the Gift of the Holy Spirit to the whole Church by which the leaders of the Church—the Pope and the bishops in union with him—are protected from fundamental error when formulating a specific teaching on a matter of faith and morals. Infallibility allows us to rely on Church teachings as being true; it also requires Catholics to accept the doctrine of the Church. The Magisterium speaks infallibly when teaching doctrine of faith and morals as clearly revealed in Scripture and Tradition.
precepts of the church
Sometimes called the commandments of the Church, these are basic obligations for all Catholics that are dictated by the laws of the Church.
The name given to the official body of laws which provide good order in the visible body of the Church.
can be understood through the use of reason. It is our God-given ability to understand what it means to be in right relationship with God, other people, the world, and ourselves. The basis for this law is our participation in God's wisdom and goodness because we are created in the divine likeness.
established by God and is a rational expression of eternal law; reflects God's wisdom; it is the teaching that leads us to the blessed life he wants for us.
The order in creation that reflects God's will and purpose; it is always true and never changes. All other types of law have their basis in this Law and are only true if they reflect the truth of this Law
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