ap world ch 3- classical india
Terms in this set (53)
Place where Buddhist artists painted rich murals in cave temples in Western India Give evidence along with Ellora to the religious ferment that could be found in India during the Classical Period. Also a testament to religious blending (Hindu, Jain, Buddhist) that is a part of India's enduring culture.
One of India's( along with Ajanta) most important holy sites in the Deccan Plateau. It is a series of caves carved into a huge cliff
One of two classical Hindu epics written in Sanskrit telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama's restoration to the throne.
Most populated area of India; Place where the Aryans searched for Iron ore for axes, tools, and new land.
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC after the fall of Harappan Culture, vedas from this time show the subjugation of the the existing inhabitants and institution of the caste system
One of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; the priestly class (in charge of the religious ceremonies that were so important in Indian society), also called Vedic Preists, were the dominant force in Indian Society during the Classical Era.
The social divisions of the Aryan Society that included from top to bottom: 1)priests (Brahmins), 2) rulers or warriors; 3) farmers, craftspeople, traders; 4) workers and servants (Sudras)
An Indian prince named Siddhartha Gautama, who renounced his wealth and social position. After becoming an 'enlightened' ascetic under a bo tree (the meaning of Buddha) he enunciated the principles of Buddhism.
The teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth, provided the most powerful challenge to the brahmans and many of the ancient Vedic beliefs and practices, also helped establish the Mauyran Empire.
Alexander the Great
Successor of Philip II; successfully conquered Persian Empire prior to his death in 323 BCE; attempted to combine Greek and Persian cultures, Spread Hellenistic Culture.
It began from Philips conquest of Greece to the beginning of the Roman Empire. During this time the laws, calendar, money, and language of Greece was used by millions of people. Homes and public buildings were very elaborate.
The highest mountains in the world, which stretch along northern India, separating it from the rest of Asia. Is the main example of how topography helped shape vital features of its civilization in the classical period. Made political unity very difficult and contributed to greater diversity in culture.
A river in South Asia that flows from the Himalayas to the Arabian Sea., the location of the first river valley civilization of India
India's most important river, flows across northern India into Bangladesh. this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Seasonal reversals of wind patterns caused by the differential heating and cooling rates of the ocean's and continents. During the summer it can bring massive rain throughout India, and if it comes too late induce drought.
a sacred Indo-European, Indic language, in use since c1200 b.c. as the religious and classical literary language of India.
A period in the history of India; It was a period of transition from nomadic pastoralism to settled village communities, with cattle the major form of wealth. When the Vedas were first composed.
(from the Sanskrit word for 'knowledge') any of the most ancient sacred writings of Hinduism written in early Sanskrit
A collection of 1,028 Sanskrit hymns composed about 1500 BC or earlier; Hinduism's oldest sacred text.
A period of time in India that followed the Vedic Age and lasted from 1000-500 B.C.E. in India. The important epics of the time were Mahabharata, Upanishads and Ramayana.
Indian epic of war, princely honor, love, and social duty; written down in the last centuries BCE; previously handed down in oral form
Later books of the Vedas; contained sophisticated and sublime philosophical ideas; utilized by Brahmans to restore religious authority; religion/mysticism, also stressed the very shallowness of wordly concerns
the name of the group of people in the caste system that were the outcasts of society; were not considered a part of Indian society or the caste system, also called pariahs
Chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior. Also known as the God of Thunder and strength
The second level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; Warriors and the governing class.
A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life, a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Caste that made up most of the Indian population; most were peasants and manual laborers; they had limited rights in society
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Third level of the varnas in the Hindu caste system; identifies merchants who engaged in commerce; COMMONERS
The ancient region stretching from the Hindu Kush mountain range to the ancient Ganhara region of the Indian subcontinent. and ruled by Greek-speaking descendants of Alexander's campaigns
A kingdom that emerged as a result of strife for land and power among minor kings; occupied almost all of the Indian subcontinent in the second century BC, most significant remaining kingdom after Alexander's departure located on the Central Ganges plian. Had economic strength and dominated surrounding regions in northeastern India.
King and founder of the Mauryan Empire, he seized power along the Ganges River following Alexander the Great's Incursion. Was the first of the Mauryan Rulers to unify the entire subcontinent, he was highly autocratic. His grandson was Ashoka
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India.He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. Believed in Dharma. After his death the empire began to disentigrate and new invaders( Kushans) from the Hindu Kush Mountains surfaced.
A collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka, as well as boulders and cave walls, made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan dynasty during his reign from 272 to 231 BC.
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste, In Hinduism, it stands for law, obligation and duty. To follow this, it means to perform and live life as one should.
Dynasty that succeeded the Mauryas in northwestern India; sponsors of Buddhism; empire did not extend to Ganges River valley., came into central India from northwest; greatest king: Kanishka, converted to Buddhism but hurt religions population;
Leader of the Kushan Empire in Classical India, 120-162 CE, Created Therarvists and Mahayanists, Considered "Second Ashoka" Warrior before converting to Buddhism Had deep support of Buddhism. Actually hurt Buddhism in India because it was associated with foreign rule
A mountain range Northwest of the Indus River. The Khyber Pass is a pass through this mountain range. South of Tajikistan, North of Pakistan, Northeast of Afghanistan. Himalayas are to the east.
The dynasty the succeeded the Kushans in the 3rd century CE in classical era India; built empire that extended to all but the southern regions of Indian subcontinent; less centralized(and smaller) than Mauryan Empire; claimed divine rule; demanding system of taxation; established many universities
Political adviser to Chandragupta Maurya; one of the authors of Arthashastra( a political treatise ; believed in scientific application of warfare.
Ancient Indian political treatise from the time of Chandragupta Maurya; its authorship was traditionally ascribed to Kautalya, and it stressed that war was inevitable and thus advocated use of spies and assassins, bribery, and scientific forms of warfare
A body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a lack of central founder. developed gradually
Brahmans who served as teachers for the princes of the imperial court of the Guptas.
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of sacrifice; widely worshipped, who, in the trinity of gods, is the Preserver
The Brahman, later Hindu, god of destruction and reproduction; worshipped as the personification of cosmic forces of change.
In Vedism, god of the night sky( who changed to the guardian of right and wrong) who with his thousand eyes watches over human conduct and judges good and evil and punishes evildoers.
The Hindu or Buddhist doctrine that person may be reborn successively into one of five classes of living beings (god or human or animal or hungry ghost or denizen of hell) depending on the person's own actions
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta dynasty offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males, including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and instruction on lovemaking
in Buddhist teachings, the ideal state in which the individual loses himself in the attainment of an impersonal beatitude
Stone shrines built to house pieces of bone and personal possessions said to be relics of the Buddha; preserved Buddhist architectural forms.
Famous classical mathematician, wrote a book that summarized Hindu mathematics, discovered pi, calculated the length of the solar system, and the circumference of the earth during India's Classical Era.
A Buddhist monastery which was university where they studied Buddhism, Hindu text, philosophy, astronomy, and medicine. Peaked at the end of the Gupta dynasty.
The "Five Books" of fables, or moral stories, from the Gupta period in India, advocates proper behavior and high moral standards, including "Sinbad the Sailor" and "Jack the Giant Killer." Best-known Indian stories around the world. The Epics final written form during the classical period