Exam 1: Chapter 1

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The school of thought that sees humans as active seekers of experiences, who use mental processes to shape those experiences, is _____ Psychology.
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Terms in this set (50)
Which of the following statements is true about naturalistic observation?
1.It is basically the same process as objective introspection.
2.It involves observing behavior in the lab without taking formal notes or using technological equipment to measure the experimental findings.
3.It recreates natural conditions in the laboratory as closely as possible to make an experiment more valid.
4.It involves observing behavior in its natural context.
A correlation coefficient of .00 means there is _____ between the factors.no relationshipPsychology is _____the scientific study of behavior and mental processesBy using random samples, polling organizations can represent the view of the American public with a sample size starting from _____1,000Dr. Sardonicus is studying the effectiveness of a new medication for anxiety, and he has found positive results. Before assuming the medication is effective, it would be best to _____replicate the study.A researcher has conducted an experiment in which she assigned all of her students four hours of homework the night before a test, in order to see what effect the extra stress has on test performance. The study is flawed because the researcher did not include a(n) _____control group.Any condition or factor that can be manipulated, controlled, or measured, is a _____variable.A positive correlation between two factors means _____the value of each moves in the same direction.A therapist who takes the evolutionary perspective would focus most on _____inherited adaptive tendencies.Descriptive research in which researchers use interviews or questionnaires to gather information about a group of people is called a _____surveyA counselor who takes the humanistic perspective would focus most on _____subjective experience.A sample that does not represent the entire group of interest is called a _____ sample.biasedA case study would be the most appropriate method to investigate which of these topics? 1.The math skills of students in Japan as compared to those of U.S. students. 2.The ways in which the games of boys differ from the games of girls. 3.Physiological changes that occur when people watch violent movies. 4.The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis.4. The development of a male baby raised as a female after a surgical error destroyed his penis._____ is the most objective method known for acquiring knowledge.The scientific methodIf we were to design an experiment to test the hypothesis that aspirin removes headaches, the independent variable would be _____ and the dependent variable would be _____aspirin; headaches.In order to prevent the researcher's expectations from influencing study participants, a(an) _____ design is used.double-blindTaffi believes that people who eat at Dairy Queen are overweight, so she decides to conduct a naturalistic observation of people who eat at Dairy Queen. What should most concern us about Taffi's observations?Observer biasA correlation coefficient represents two things: _____ and _____the strength; direction of the relationship.People responding to surveys or interviews tend to want to present themselves in a good light, thus reducing the accuracy of their responses. This is called the _____ response.social desirabilityA large study of heart disease that included white and African-American participants considered the age and gender of the participants but not their socioeconomic status. The conclusion drawn by the researchers was that being an African American male places you at greater risk for heart disease than being a white male. The problem with this conclusion is that_____we cant tell if the variable is race or socioeconomic status.Which of the following statements would most likely be made by Sigmund Freud? 1.Thoughts that precede behavior should be the focus of psychological interventions. 2.Unconscious forces may contain conflicts that can be a detriment to psychological health and development. 3.Because behavior is learned, it can easily be unlearned. 4.Because we have free will, individuals can choose to overcome psychological difficulties.2.Unconscious forces may contain conflicts that can be a detriment to psychological health and development.Feelings of depression have convinced Nyla to seek out a therapist. When she met with the therapist, she answered the following questions regarding her behavior: Has your sleeping pattern changed? Has your appetite changed? Have you been crying? Have you been unable to go to work? The therapist only seemed interested in her behaviors, not her thoughts or early childhood. Most likely, Nyla's therapist subscribes to which school of thought?BehavioristDr. Cullinan is conducting research in Kenya into the ways that mothers and their toddlers interact throughout the day. Given the purpose of her study, it is most likely that she is engaged in _____naturalistic observation.When a subject's response to a treatment is due to their expectations rather than the actual treatment, they are showing the _____ effect.placeboWhich of the following is a common ethical guideline suggested by the American Psychological Association? 1.Participants may not withdraw after they start a study. 2.Participants cannot be deceived about aspects of the research. 3.Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision to participate in a study. 4.Participants cannot be subjected to electric shock.3.Participants must be allowed to make an informed decision to participate in a study.Matt's experiment was designed to find out if reading an entire chapter at once led to better test grades than reading a section at a time over several days. The dependent variable in his experimental research was _____the test grade.The group of individuals actually studied is called the _____sampleWhich of the following would be true if the number of hours students spend watching TV is negatively correlated with their grades in school? 1.TV viewing would not be related to grades in any systematic way. 2.TV viewing would be the independent variable in the study. 3.Students who watch less TV would have the higher grades. 4.Students who watch more TV would have the higher grades.3.Students who watch less TV would have the higher grades.A(n) ___ is a measure of how strongly two variables are related to one another.correlationAssunta was raised in a strict, traditional Italian family that had close ties with the tight-knit Italian community in which she lived. Years later, when she was studying to become a psychologist, she realized just how much of an influence her upbringing and ethnicity had in molding her views and personality. This particular insight led Assunta to realize just how important _____ can be in an individual's psychological development.the sociocultural approachThe scientific method starts with _____observations.It is extremely important to remember that correlation _____ prove causation.does notThe two kinds of variables found in every experiment are _____ and _____ variables.dependent; independentJulie finds that the number of hours she sleeps each night is related to the scores she receives on quizzes the next day. As her sleep approaches eight hours, her quiz scores improve; as her sleep drops to five hours, her quiz scores show a similar decline. Julie realizes that there is a _____ correlation between her hours of sleep and her grades.positiveA detailed description of a particular individual being studied or treated is called _____a case study."If children watch violent cartoons, then they will become more aggressive." According to the scientific method, this statement is a _____hypothesis.In thinking about her future career as a counselor, Taisha thinks she will be most concerned with her client's subjective experience and biological processes. She will also want to know if any family member has symptoms of an inheritable psychological problem. It sounds as though Taisha will be adopting a(n) _____ perspective toward working with her clients.eclecticResearch on animals _____must minimize any discomfort.Which of the following would limit the effectiveness of the experimental method? 1.Independent variables 2.Random assignment 3.Representative samples 4.Selection bias4.Selection biasThe only research method that can identify cause-and-effect relationships between variables is _____the experimental method.Most experiments have a _____ group for purposes of comparison. This group is not given the treatment or the same independent variable as the _____ group.control; experimental