A crucial element of the study of human development is
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The theory that arose in direct opposition to psychoanalytic theory isBehavioral theoryCognitive theories emphasize theDevelopment of thought processes and their effect on behavior.Molecules of DNA are referred to asChromosomesA genome isThe full set of genes for a particular organism.Human development begins when a sperm penetrates the membrane ofAn ovumAn XX pattern is the 23rd pair of chromosomes indicates the fetus willbe female.Physical traits such as height aredetermined by environmental influences and genetic potential.The longest period of prenatal development is theperiod of the fetusWhat begins to develop last during prenatal development?ToesTeratology refers toThe study of birth defectsBecause Suzanne is pregnant, she drinks only one glass of wine a day and smokes fewer cigarettes than previously. She should be told thatEach drug might intensify the effects of the other.The "age of viability" refers to the point when the preterm newborncan surviveSome teratogens are harmless until they reach a certain level of exposure; they then become dangerous, demonstrating the:threshold effectThe second stage of labor begins when thebaby's head appears at the opening of the vagina.Children reach half their adult height by age2 yearsThe biological protection of the brain when malnutrition temporarily affects body growth is known ashead-sparingThe nerve cells of the brain are calledNeuronsThe process by which underused neurons are inactivated is known asPruningThe process that is involved when a body system first detects an external stimulus isSensationThe Swiss scientist who emphasized that infants are active learners and that early learning is based on sensory and motor skills wasJean PiagetJean Piaget was most interested instudying how children think.Children all over the world usuallyfollow the same sequence of language developmentPiaget's basic test for object permanence involvesshowing a baby an interesting toy and then covering it with a cloth.Studies comparing breast-feeding with bottle-feeding show thatbreast-fed babies have fewer allergies and stomach aches.A baby sticks out its tongue and another person laughs. The baby joins in the laughter and deliberately sticks out its tongue again. Piaget would call thisSecondary circular reactionsThe first recognizable emotion in an infant isdistressAn infant's distress at an unfamiliar person is calledstranger warinessDr. Hoemann believes that a child's behavior problems are caused entirely by the parents' use of reinforcements and punishments. Dr. Hoemann is most likely abehavioristA sign of secure attachment isattempting to be close to the caregiverRuby does not notice when her mother leaves the day-care center and ignores her mother when she returns. Ruby's behavior isInsecure-avoidant attachment.