Geography- TEST 9/23

hey guys! so I would study this, the landform papers, and the study guide he gave us because not all of that stuff is here! okay, soooo have fun studying (:
the solid metallic center of the earth
a soft layer of molten rock that floats on top of the core
the thin layer of rock at the surface of the earth
molten rock that is the result of the magma melting the underside of the earth's crust
the solid rock portion of the earth's surface
the water elements of the earth, including oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, and water in the atmosphere
the part of the earth where plants and animals live
continental drift
theory that a supercontinent divided and drifter apart over time
What order is the earth from the sun in our solar system?
93 million miles
What is earth's distance from the sun?
What is the earth's core mostly made up of?
1800 miles
How thick is the mantle?
when the mantle melts the underside of the crust
How is magma created?
made up of the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere
Bethany Dennison, Ashley Ross, Sara Abston, and their wonderful cats
Who do you love?
hydrologic cycle
the continuous circulation of water between the atmosphere, oceans, and earth
naturally formed features on the earth's surface
continental shelf
the earth's surface from the edge of a continent to the edge of the deep part of the ocean
the difference in elevation of a landform from the lowest point to the highest point
71 percent
How much of the planet is covered by water?
mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus
four main categories of relief
tectonic plate
an enormous moving piece that forms the earth's crust
a fracture in the earth's crust
violent movement of the earth caused by the movement of tectonic plates
point on the earth's surface directly above an earthquake
Richter scale
a scale that measures the energy released during an earthquake
a giant wave in the ocean caused by an earthquake
an opening in the earth's crust where magma and gases escape
what magma is called when it reaches the earth's surface
Ring of Fire
a zone around the rim of the Pacific ocean where most active volcanoes are found
1. sliding past each other; 2. subduction (diving under another plate); 3. convergence (crashing into one another); 4. spreading (moving apart)
four ways that the tectonic plates move
divergent boundary, convergent boundary, and transform boundary
three types of boundaries mark plate movements
plates move apart
divergent boundary
plates collide with each other
convergent boundary
plates slide past on another
transform boundary
up to 450 miles per hour
speed of tsunamis
the lower part of the crust or mantle
Where are the magma, gases, and water in a volcano from?
hot spots
areas where the crust is very thin and occasionally magma melts through
fertile soil and heat energy
What are two good results of volcanic action?
physical or chemical processes that change the characteristics of rock on or near the earth's surface
small pieces of rock
mechanical weathering
process that breaks down rock
chemical weathering
process that changes rock into a new substance; it happens because of elements in the air or water and the minerals in the rock interact
weathered material moved by wind, water, ice, or gravity
mud, sand, silt
examples of sediment
ice or frost, plant growth; human activities- drilling and blasting in a mine
things that cause mechanical weathering
minerals reacting to oxygen, minerals with water or carbon dioxide forming weak acids, and climate
What are some things that cause chemical weathering?
the loose mixture of weathered rock, organic matter, air, and water that supports plant growth
five factors that affect soil
parent material, relief, organisms, climate, time
the chemical composition affects fertility
parent material
steeper slopes erode easily and produce soil slowly
small animals such as worms and ants help loosen soil. bacteria helps material decompose; this supplies food for plants
hot and cold climates produce different solid; the same is true for wet and dry climates
the amount of time to produce soil varies