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Chapter 31: The Early 20th Century
Terms in this set (68)
What work by Claude Monet changed the styles and attitudes towards art?
What was the style of impressionist paintings like?
They would be simple and would try to capture an atmosphere rather than a realistic view. A couple brush strokes would represent a person or building and the viewer would have to interpret details themselves.
How did the revolution of impressionism affect music?
Gave birth to new ways of seeing and thinking about art.
How did composers of the early 20th c. try to catch peoples attention with their music?
This modern music had to be distinct and original enough to be worthy of performance while still continuing the tradition of old classical masterworks
How was tonality a problem for composers in the early 20th c.?
Composers wanted to make something new but if they adhered to tonality to much they would sound too old and if they didn't have tonality it would be very hard to follow and sound like gibberish.
After writing tone poems, what did Strauss turn to afterwards?
What was Strauss' 1st big success in opera? What is it about and what makes it different than earlier operas?
One-act play by Oscar Wilde adapted by Strauss. It is a biblical story about Salome who performs her Dance of the 7 veils to entice Herod to bring her the head of John the Baptist so she can kiss his cold lips
The subject and action was very different as it was obscured by much harmonic complexities and chromaticism, sometimes even suggesting 2 keys
Who were Strauss' models for opera and why?
Wagner and Mozart
They were both very good at using contrasting styles to capture their character's personalities, articulate emotion and convey the dramatic situation
Strauss collaborated with Hugo von Hofmannsthal to write ______ which resulted in 7 other operas. What is the opera about and how does Strauss portray the emotions of insane hatred and revenge?
A Play by Sophocles where Elektra dwells on intense emotions portrayed by chromaticism, dissonance and tonal instability, even more so than Salome
What does Strauss portray in Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose) with simple diatonic music, chromaticism, unpredictably curving melodies and wide use of colors?
Sensuality or enchantment
What did Claude Debussy 1862-1918) like and dislike about Wagner's works?
Liked - Tristan and Parisfal
Disliked - Wagner's philosophy in music, Gesamtkunstwerk
What were some of the many musical influences for Debussy's style?
French tradition for sensibility, taste, restraint, and admiration for Emmanual Chabrier
New ideas from Balakirev, Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin, and Mussorgsky
Medieval music, parallel organum
Music in Asia, javanese gamelan music and Chinese and Japanese melody
Is Debussy more of an impressionist or symbolist? Why?
What type of genre is Debussy usually put under in terms of style?
Symbolism because of friendships with symbolist poets and his use of their text for songs and dramatic works
One musical characteristics portrayed by both sides is when Debussy evokes a mood, feeling or atmosphere rather than overtly expressing it
How does Debussy create musical images?
What are his motives, dissonances and sonorities like?
Through motives, harmony, exotic scales, instrumental timbre, and other elements
Motives don't develop, but instead repeat with small changes.
Dissonances don't resolve
Sonorities may move in parallel motion
How is Debussy's style shown through his work "L'isle joyeuse"?
Each motive is associated with a:
-chord or succession of chords
-range on he piano
In the piece there are sections with:
a rising M3 in a whole-tone enviroment
upward sweep of B dorian diatonic scale
chromatic line in contrary motion over an A pedal
While Debussy was influenced by Liszt and Wagner how does he treat harmony differently?
There isn't a large urge to resolve
Debussy maintains a tonal center but chords are treated more independent than before giving the music a sense of "detached observation"
Give examples of piano works by Debussy that display allusions to other cultures or shows him satirizing other works
Pagodes , the 1st piece in Estampes,
-Asian atmosphere by using pentatonic melodies, low gongs, and multilayer-ed textures of Javanese gamelan
Pokes fun at Clementi and Czerny's piano exercises in Dr. Gradus as Parnassum
Middle section of Golligwog's Cakewalk, recasts Wagner's Tristan und Isolde in the style of salon music with a marking that says "with a great show of emotion"
Which character pieces by Debussy has their titles placed at the end rather than the beginning of the piece to allow performers and listeners to create their own images?
24 Preludes (2 books, 1909-10 and 1911-13)
Debussy's orchestral works have the same characteristics as his piano works but often requires a large orchestra. How does Debussy use the orchestra differently than Mahler?
Use of a great variety of tone colors and textures rather than a loud sound
Debussy also treated music as an art of sound rather than notes
What is Debussy's "prelude a "L'apres-midi d'un faune"" based on and how does he treat the subject?
Based on symbolist poem by Mallarme
Same way as french symbolist poets did, evoking mood through suggestion, connotation, and indirection
What are orchestral works by Debussy that show off his orchestral technique?
Nuages (Clouds) -imagist instrumentation
Fetes (Festivals) - brilliance of full ensemble
Sirenes - blending of orchestra with wordless female chorus
La mer (The Sea, 1903-05) - captures movements of the sea through alternating musical images
What are songs or song music by Debussy and which one made his reputation?
Sought out dramatic projects such as:
The Matyrdom of Saint Sebastian (1910-11)
*Only completed opera "Pelleas et Melisande" (1893-1902) in response to Wagner's Tristan und Isolde. Made his reputation when it premiered at the Paris Opera-Comique
What are distinctive traits by Ravel that were different from Debussy? What is a good piece that illustrates these points?
Jeux d'eau (Fountains, 1901)
-innovative textures, parallel dissonant chords under rushing scales
-chords and arpeggiated figures that emphasize open 5ths or 4ths
-treats whole-tone sonorities as dissonant harmonies that must resolve
-Major 7ths attached to tonic or sub-dominant chords creating a spiky dissonance Debussy avoided
What works by Ravel invoke an impressiont style?
Gaspard de la nuit (1908)
Daphnis et Chloe (1909-12)
In which pieces did Ravel borrow the style of French Baroque tradition of stylized dances and suites?
Menuet antique (1895)
Pavane for a Dead Princess (1899)
Le tombeau de Couperion (1914-17)
Ravel's settings closely reflect the natural accents of _____, often dropping final syllables as they were _____ in normal speech in music hall songs
What works display Ravel's interest in classic forms?
Sonatine for piano (1903-5)
String Quartet in F (1902-3)
Piano Trio (1914)
Violin Sonata (1923-27)
In what works did Ravel use popular traditions outside of France (nationalistic traditions)?
La valse - Viennese waltz rhythm
Tzigane - gypsy style
Violin Sonata - blues
Piano Concerto for the Left Hand - composed for Pul Wittgenstein who lost his right arm in WWI
Bolero - Spanish idioms
How did Ravel avoid repeating himself? How was he always able to be original?
Drew on a wide range of different sources give each piece an individual and unique stamp
Who are the 3 big composers from Spain during the early 20th century? Who is the top spanish composer among them?
Manuel de Falla***
How did Albeniz portray the Spanish style?
Blended Spanish melodic traits and dance rhythms with a virtuosic style of Liszt and Debussy in his work "Iberia"
How did Granados achieve the Spanish style and in what work did he do so?
Based piano pieces on Spanish dances and drew of spanish styles like:
-keyboard sonatas of Domenico Scarlatti
Manual de Falla was the most popular of all the Spanish composers in the 20th c. How did he develop nationalistic Spanish music while resisting its pure exoticism?
What are some of his works the show off the melody and rhythm of Spanish popular music?
What was his finest mature work?
-Collected and arranged national folk songs that introduced public to variety of folk music.
La vida Breve (Life is Short)
El Amor brujo (Love, the Sorcerer)
El sombrero de tres picos (The Three-Cornered Hat)
El retableo de maese Pedro (Master Pedro's Puppet Show) - based on episode from Don Quixote
Which 2 English composers sought a distinct English sounds and as a result published hundreds of folk songs. Which works by these composers used these folk melodies in their works?
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Five Variants of "Dives and Lazarus"
Holst and Williams became close friends at the Royal Conservatory of Music and leaders of the new English school
Holst wrote much music that was influenced by English song and _____, which he set in ______
Hindu sacred texts
Choral hymns from the Rig Veda
What is Holst best-known work and what did it become the source of?
Orchestral suite, The Planets
Source for many conventions of scoring movies and tv shows in space
What were some inspirations for Williams music and which composers were influences in his music?
English folk song and English hymnody
What was a special trait by Vaughn Williams and other modern English composers?
They wrote both art and practical/utilitarian music
How did Vaughn Williams become versed in hymnody and how did this affect his musical output?
Was music editor of English Hymnal in 1904-6
Composed 6 hymn tunes, arranged 40 folk songs as hymns and resurrected forgotten 16th c. tunes as hymns
How did Vaughn-Williams incorporate an English quality to his music?
What is one of his most popular works and what is it based on?
Imitation of British folk tunes with modal harmony of 16th century composers.
Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Tallis, based on a Tallis hymn in the phrygian mode from the "English Hymnal"
Who was the leading 20th c. Czech composer and how did he achieve his nationalistic Czech style?
Leos Janacek (1854-1928)
Collected and edited folk music from his native region of Moravia and studied the rhythms and inflections of peasant speech and song
What are characteristics of Leos Janacek Czech style?
-contrasting sonoroities, harmonies, motives and tone colours
-repeating and juxtaposing ideas in the style of Mussorgsky or Debussy rather than developing them as in the German tradition
When and why did Janacek receive wider recognition?
In his 60's
When his opera Jenufa premiered in Brno in 1904 being performed in Prague in 1916 and Vienna in 1918, same year that Czechslovakia gained independence after dissolution of Austria-Hungary
What are works by Janacek, operatic and instrumental, that became part of the international repertoire?
Kat a Kabanova
The Cunning Little Vixen
The Makropulos Affair
From the House of the Dead
Operas had strongly contrasting ideas that delineated characters and situations
2 late string quartets
Why did Jean Sibelius (1865-1957) change his name from Johan to Jean?
Was raised as a Swede but as a young man became patriotic to Finland and learned the language changing his name from the Swedish Johan to French Jean
which Finnish national epic did Sibelius mine for texts to set in his vocal works and for subjects to use in his symphonic poems?
With which works did Sibelius establish his reputation as Finland's leading composer?
The Swan of Tuonela
Finlandia*** (most famous and political)
All symphonic poems
Who began supporting Sibelius from 1897?
What are musical characteristics that make up Sibelius' style?
What type of sound do all these characteristics contribute to?
-Insistent repetitions of biref motives
-Strong contrasts of orchestral timbres and textures
A style far removed from 19th century academic tradition that he was trained in
What two devices does Sibelius use to rework sonata form in unique ways?
What work illustrates both these techniques?
Rotational form - repeatedly cycling through a series of thematic elements that are varied each time
Teleological genesis - Goal-directed process of generating a theme from bits and pieces of motives, sometimes over an entire movement or symphony (building on Liszt's Thematic Transformation)
Slow 3rd movement of his 4th Symphony
How did Sibelius use of diatonic melodies and tonal harmonies help and hinder his reputation?
Helped his music become popular in Finland, Britian and U.S
Hurt reputation in Europe as people thought he was too conservative
Why did Sergei Rachmaninov (1873-1943) leave Russia in 1917 to leave and make his home in the US?
What are Rachmaninov's notable works for orchestra?
The Isle of the Dead (1907) - symphonic poem
The Bells (1913) - choral symphony
What are Rachmaninov's well-known piano works?
24 preludes (1892-1910)
Two sets of Etudes Tableaux (1911 and 1916-7)
4 piano concerti
Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (1934) for piano and orchestra
What influences does Rachmaninov's music combine?
Western composers like Mendelssohn and Chopin and Russian elements of orthodox liturgical music to Tchaikovsky
Why was Rachmaninov a big influence in music and what was interesting about his music?
Give an example of a work that illustrates why he was made famous
He did not innovate music but took old conventions and composed them in a completely new way.
Prelude in G minor
Creates new innovative textures with traditional harmonies in an ABA' form.
Opening g minor triad made very interesting by alternating registers and slight decoration
B section doesn't modulate but instead plays around with dominant seventh
Works types of works did Alexander Scriabin (1872-1915) begin writing initially?
Nocturnes, preludes, Etudes, and mazurkas in the style of Chopin
What aspects of other composers influenced Scriabin?
Chromaticism - Liszt and Wagner
Octatonic scale and exotic elements - Rimsky-Korsakov
Texture, scale, and figuration - Debussy and Russian composers
What are notable orchestral works by Scriabin?
Poem of Ecstacy (1908)
What did Scriabin request during his performance of Prometheus that was unique?
He wanted the concert hall to be flooded with changing colour as he had synaesthesia that caused him to link colours and sound
Secondly he did this to try and combine all arts with the goal of producing a state of mystic rapture
What is special about Scriabins use of conventional tonal harmony and what works illustrate this?
He replaced conventional tonal harmony with instead a complex chord, usually part of a octatonic scale that has one or two tritones, that acts as a tonic ( called a referential chord)
Referential chords would look like Wagner's Tristan chord
Scribians harmonic progression moves by altering or transposing the chord with figuration and then returning to the referential chord that may be altered slightly
10 piano sonatas, last 5 have no key signatures or tonality
What is the genre of music that is so harmonically complex that regular tonality is no longer used, even if there may be an abstract tonal centre?
The term ______ was used to describe the French military unit in WWI that prepared the way for the main army. French artists who saw themselves exploring new territory also used this term
This was more of an idea than a style. Composers of avant-garde shared certain attitudes as opposed to musical ideas
How does Erik Satie (1866-1925) exemplify the avant-garde ideal?
In his works "Gymnopedies" (1888 3 works for piano) instead of offering variety he writes in such a way that the music is:
Plain and unemotional
Uses same slow tempo
Same accompaniment all pattern
Same melodic rhythm
Similar modal harmonies
What piano works by Satie have surrealistic titles and what is strange about their directions and notes?
Three Pieces in the Form of a Pear (1903, actually has 7)
Automatic Descriptions (1913)
Has directions such as, "withdraw your hand and put it in your pocket" or "that's wonderful!" Only the performer was aware of these instructions
What idea did Satie critique and what type of music was he in favour of?
Critiqued the idea of concert music
Was in favour of music for the players own enjoyment
Which masterworks by Satie are comical and often satirize other composers? Which composers does he satirizes?
Embryons desseches (Dried Embryos, 1913) 3 pieces
2nd piece says "quotation from the celebrated mazurka of Schubert" but is actually Chopin's funeral march and is also marked "they all begin to cry"
3rd piece satirizes Wagner leitmotives and ends with a long "obligatory cadenza (by composer)" that pounds on tonic over and over making fun of Beethoven's tendency to do this.
What are larger works by Satie that exemplify his avant-garde style?
Parade (1916-7) written by Jean Cocteau introduced cubism to the stage, Picasso made the costumes. The music had jazz elements, a whistle, siren, and a typewriter
Relache (No Show Tonight, 1942) and parade both caused scandals
Socrate (1920) - symphonic drama for soloists and chamber orchestra on texts from Plato about the death of Socrates
Musique d"ameublement (Furniture Music, 1920) meant to be played during the intermission of the play as background music not to be listened to
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