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• Increase in the number of cells present in a tissue
• Reversible and under physiologic control
• An adaptive substitution of one type of adult tissue for another type of adult tissue
• Under stress a more vulnerable type of tissue can be replaced by another that is more capable of withstanding the stress
• An abnormality in cell size and appearance with or without a disorganized growth pattern
• Is not cancer
• Is reversible
Carcinoma In-Situ (CIS):
• Equivalent to severe or full thickness dysplasia
• Severe cervical dysplasia=CIS [CINIII]
• Not cancer
• Respects BM
• Tissue replicates without regard to the regulatory influences that control normal cell growth
• The formation and proliferation of non-neoplastic connective tissue in response to a neoplasm
• Often associated with a malignancy and is the most normal response to the invasion
• Slow growth
• Resemblance to tissue of origin (well differentiated)
• Circumscription with pushing border (+/- encapsulated)
• Lack of invasion or metastases
• Usually not life threatening, but can cause problems through mass effect
• Respects BM
Nomenclature of benign epithelial tumors producing glands or derived from glandular tissue:
• Benign epithelial tumors that grow upward form an epithelial surface and have a frond-like, papillary architecture
• A peculiar benign neoplasm which is a localized, but has haphazard growth of tissues normally found at a given site
• The ability of neoplasm to grow into and through adjacent normal tissues by breaching the BM
• The spread of a neoplasm from the area of origin to distant sites through various routes
• Others include more rapid increase in size & lack of differentiation (anaplasia)
Histologic features of malignant neoplasms:
• Lack of differentiation (anaplasia)
• Increased nuclear DNA content with subsequent dark staining on H and E slides (hyperchromatism)
• Prominent nucleoli within the nuclei
• Increased nuclear size with increase nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C ratio)
Mesenchymal malignant neoplasms are named after the parenchymal cell type of origin with the suffix:
• Grade 1- well differentiated
• Grade 2- moderately differentiated
• Grade 3- poorly differentiated
• Any malignant growth of cells (tumor), whether a carcinoma, sarcoma or hematologic malignancy
• Second most common cause of death in US
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