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40 terms

Lec_4 Path Neo 1

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Hyperplasia:
• Increase in the number of cells present in a tissue
• Reversible and under physiologic control
Metaplasia:
• An adaptive substitution of one type of adult tissue for another type of adult tissue
• Under stress a more vulnerable type of tissue can be replaced by another that is more capable of withstanding the stress
Dysplasia:
• An abnormality in cell size and appearance with or without a disorganized growth pattern
• Is not cancer
• Is reversible
Carcinoma In-Situ (CIS):
• Equivalent to severe or full thickness dysplasia
• Severe cervical dysplasia=CIS [CINIII]
• Not cancer
• Respects BM
Neoplasia:
• A disease of cells characterized by alteration of normal growth regulatory mechanisms
Transformed:
• Tissue replicates without regard to the regulatory influences that control normal cell growth
Parasitic:
• Tissue competes with "normal" cells and tissues for metabolic needs
Cachexia:
• Neoplasias can flourish while the rest of the body wastes away
Desmoplasia:
• The formation and proliferation of non-neoplastic connective tissue in response to a neoplasm
• Often associated with a malignancy and is the most normal response to the invasion
Tumor:
• A "growth" or "enlargement" which may not necessarily be neoplastic
Benign:
• Slow growth
• Resemblance to tissue of origin (well differentiated)
• Circumscription with pushing border (+/- encapsulated)
• Lack of invasion or metastases
• Usually not life threatening, but can cause problems through mass effect
• Respects BM
Nomenclature of benign mesenchymal tumors on the parenchymal cell:
• Oma
B9 tumor of uterus:
• Leiomyoma
B9 tumor of fibrous tissue:
• Fibroma
B9 tumor of cartilage:
• Chondroma
Nomenclature of benign epithelial tumors producing glands or derived from glandular tissue:
• Adenoma
Papillomas:
• Benign epithelial tumors that grow upward form an epithelial surface and have a frond-like, papillary architecture
Polyps:
• Exophytic masses on a mucosal surface
• Often found in bowel
Hamartoma:
• A peculiar benign neoplasm which is a localized, but has haphazard growth of tissues normally found at a given site
Choristoma:
• B9 neoplasm
• Normal tissue where it should not be
• Heterotopic rest
Invasion:
• The ability of neoplasm to grow into and through adjacent normal tissues by breaching the BM
Metastasis:
• The spread of a neoplasm from the area of origin to distant sites through various routes
Lymphatic dissemination:
• Primary mode of dissemination for carcinomas
Hematogenous dissemination:
• Primary mode of dissemination for sarcomas
Seeding:
• Involves tumor dissemination in body cavities
• Seeds the outside of structure
Malignant characteristics:
• **Metastases
• *Invasion
• Others include more rapid increase in size & lack of differentiation (anaplasia)
Histologic features of malignant neoplasms:
• Lack of differentiation (anaplasia)
• Increased nuclear DNA content with subsequent dark staining on H and E slides (hyperchromatism)
• Anaplasia
• Prominent nucleoli within the nuclei
• Increased nuclear size with increase nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio (N/C ratio)
• Necrosis
Anaplasia:
• Atypical Mitosis and Nuclear Pleomorphism
Microinvasion:
• The spread of epithelial malignancies just beyond the basement membrane
Mesenchymal malignant neoplasms are named after the parenchymal cell type of origin with the suffix:
• Sarcoma
A malignant tumor of smooth muscle origin:
• Leiomyosarcoma
A malignancy of striated muscle origin:
• Rhabdomyosarcoma
A malignancy of bone (osseous) origin:
• Osteosarcoma
Epithelial malignant neoplasms are:
• Carcinomas
Malignant epithelial neoplasms forming glands or arising from glandular tissues:
• Adenocarcinomas
Malignant squamous and urothelial cells:
• Squamous and urothelial (transitional cell) carcinomas
Stages:
• Most important criteria
• Tumor size & location
• Node involvement
• *Metastases
Grade:
• Grade 1- well differentiated
• Grade 2- moderately differentiated
• Grade 3- poorly differentiated
Cancer:
• Any malignant growth of cells (tumor), whether a carcinoma, sarcoma or hematologic malignancy
• Second most common cause of death in US
Teratoma:
• Derives from ectoderm, endoderm, or mesoderm