Ideologies and Upheavals 1815-1850

Terms in this set (92)

Allies of the Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain) (+ minor host delegates from the smaller European nations) meet to fashion a general peace settlement that would last and not sow the seeds of another war. In this moderation toward France the allies were motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about the balance of power: the balance of power meant an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression and prevent the domination of Europe by any single state. The idea of the balance of power was used to settle man disputes during the course of the Congress.
France: Pre-the One Hundred Days, initially very lenient
-Restored the Bourbon dynasty
-given boundaries it possessed in 1792 (greater than those of 1789)
- no war reparations to be paid
==> no spirit of injustice/ revenge created
France: Post-the One Hundred Days
-Louis XVIII restored to the throne again.
-France loses a little territory
-Had to pay an indemnity of 700 million Francs
- Has to support a large army of occupation for five years.
Low Countries (Belgium + Holland):
-united under an enlarged Dutch monarchy that would be capable of opposing France more effectively.
-receives territory on France's eastern border so as to stand as the "sentinel on the Rhine" against France.
- Part of Saxony (see below)
Great Britain:
-Already won colonies and strategic outposts during the long wars
-Gave up territories to Belgium and Southern German
-Takes the rich provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in northern Italy as well was the former Polish possessions and new lands n the eastern coast of the Adriatic.
-Small Polish kingdom restored under Tsar Alexander I's rule (see below)
Conflict b/w Russia + Prussia and the other states almost leads to renewed war in 1815:
-Tsar Alexander I of Russian wanted to restore the ancient kingdom of Poland and rule it. The Prussians agreed with his proposal provided that they could have the large and wealthy kingdom of Saxony.
- Metternich and Castlereagh (see cards) feared that this would upset the balance of power --> Sign a secret alliance with Talleyrand (see card) ==> war seems imminent.
- Threat of war causes the rules of Russian and Prussia to moderate their demands: Russia accepts a smaller Polish kingdom and Prussia takes only part of Saxony.
==> Retains balance of power and allows France to regain its status as a Great Power.
One Hundred Days: Napoleon escapes from his "comic kingdom" on the island of Elba and rules France for less than 100 days. The peace concluded after Napoleon's final defeat in Waterloo was still moderate towards France.
Members of the Quadruple Alliance agree to meet periodically to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures for the maintenance of peace in Europe. ==> beginning of the European "Congress system"
Creates the German Confederation
This was just the international side to the peace declaration.
Central principles: liberty and equality
Energized by the success of the American and French revolution liberalism cont. to pose a radical challenge to conservatism.
-representative government: however desire property qualifications attached to the right to vote --> limits vote the upper-middle classes.
-equality before the law (not legally separated classes)
-Individual freedoms: freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
-opposed government intervention in social and economic affairs even if the need for action seemed great to social critics and reformers. Unrestricted Private enterprise and no government interference with the economy. "Laissez faire", free economy. (This point of liberalism was highly criticized by the opponents of liberalism).
==> This idea of economic liberalism was embraced by the British and in the early 18th century old restrictions on trade and industry were relaxed or eliminated. This liberalism promoted the growth of the industrial revolution. However economic liberalism also became the doctrine associated with the business class and was used by this class to justify their right to do as they pleased with their factory -- labor unions outlawed
==> Often called "classical" liberalism in the U.S to distiguish it from modern American liberalism which usually in favor of more government intervention on behalf of social needs and economic regulation.
In Europe by 1815 only with Louis XVIII's constitutional charter (see card) and England's parliament and historic rights had any of the liberal program been realized.
Liberalism, although it still retained its cutting edge, was seen as somewhat of a duller tool than it had been because of the emergence of more radical ideological competitors in the early 19th century.
Liberalism in the early 19th century also became more closely associated with narrow class interests (see representative gov. above) esp. the middle class.
Radical idea that emerged after 1815 and would have enormous influence on the modern world.
3 main points of nationalism:
1.) Normally evolves from real or imagined cultural unity, which manifests itself commonly in a common language, history, and territory.
2.) Usually seek to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries. ==> this premise made nationalism so potentially explosive in central and eastern Europe after 1815 when there were either too few states (Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire), of to many (the Italian peninsula and the German Confederation) and when different peoples overlapped and intermingled.
3.) Modern nationalism had its immediate origins in the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars: Nationalism was harnessed by the French republic during the reign of terror to repel foreign foes and all across Europe patriots tried to kindle nationalist flames in the war against Napoleon.
Early nationalists typically believed that every nation had a right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit. Confident that the freedom of other nations would not lessen the freedom of their own nation. Rather the symphony of nations would promote the harmony and ultimate unity of all peoples.
Negative side of nationalism:
-Although they talked of serving all of humanity they also stressed the differences among people.
-strong "we" and "they" mentality with the "the" often being the enemy.
-To this "we-they" outlook it was all to easy for nationalists to add 2 volatile ingredients: a sense of national mission and a sense of national superiority
==> this "we-they" outlook mixed with these ingredients often as the potential to lead to crusades and counter-crusades
Socialism was a new radical doctrine that emerged after 1815. Almost all early socialists were French.
Although these French socialists differed on many specific points, they were all acutely aware of the political revolution in France and and the rise of modern industry in England had begun the transformation of society. Yet they were disturbed by what they saw:
-Liberal politics, such as competition for votes, and liberal economics, such as free markets and the end of guild regulation, appeared to be fomenting selfish individualism and splitting the community up.
==> believed that there was an urgent need for a further reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
Key ideas of French Socialism: Planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property
-economic planning: inspired by the emergency measures of 1793-1794 in France these early socialists argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job.
-intense desire to help the poor and protect them from the rich ==> preach near economic equality
-private property should be strictly regulated by the government or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership
The message of French utopian socialists interacted with the experiences of French urban workers:
-(In Paris esp.) workers cherished the memory of the radical phase of the French revolution and its efforts the regulate economic life and protect the poor.
-Skilled artisans with their long history of guilds, apprenticeships, and control of quality and wage rates were violently opposed to laissez-faire that prevented them from organizing into groups and promoted brutal competition.
==> Goals of workers and utopian theorists reinforce each other and in the 1830-40s a socialist movement emerged in Paris.
==> Economic arguments still weak and their programs often seem to fanciful ==> up to Marx to establish the firm foundation of modern socialism
Personal: son of a Jewish lawyer who had converted to Christianity. Atheistic. Studied philosophy at the University of Berlin before turning to journalism and economics. Read man French socialist thinkers.
-Fled to England broke following the revolutions of 1848
- Shared Fourier's view of middle-class marriage as legalized prostitution ==> favors the emancipation of women and the abolition of family
-1848 published the communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engles
-"Capital": the weighty exposition of his socialist theories.
- Thought the French Socialists appeal to the middle-class and the state to help the poor was ridiculous and naive because, he believed, the interests of the middle class and those of the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other. In his view, one class had always exploited the other and with the advent of modern industry the class divide was becoming even clearer: the middle class (the bourgeoisie) vs. the modern working class (the proletariat) (idea based of the work of Georg Hegel)
- Believed that just as the bourgeoisie had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy the proletariat would triumph over the bourgeoisie via violent revolution. --> while the tiny minority grows richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and class-consciousness. In this process the proletariat were aided by a portion of the bourgeoisie who had gone over to the proletariat (like himself and Engles).
-Following David Ricardo, who had taught that labor was the source of all value, Marx went on to argue that profits were wages stolen from workers.
-Marx also incorporated Engel's charges of terrible oppression of the new class of factory workers in England which lent Marx's doctrines more credibly as they seemed to be based on hard fact.
Although Marx's ideas were not well known in 1848 they were very influential in the alter 19th century as he appeared to unite sociology, economics, and all human history in a vast and imposing edifice.
Literary and artistic movement that reached it's peak during the early 19th century.

Fundamental undertones:
-Revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment: Classicism was essentially composed of a set of artistic rules and standards, a notion that went well with the Enlightenment's belief in rationality, order, and restraint. The classicists believed that the ancient Greeks and Romans had discovered eternally valid aesthetic rules and that artisans should follow them. Classicists were able to enforce these notions during the 18th century because they dominated the courts and academies for which artists worked.
-This revolt is esp. evident in their differing views on NATURE: classicists were not particularly interested in nature, instead choosing to focus of humans, but when portrayed it was portrayed as beautiful, chaste, like an 18th century formal garden. The romantics, in contrast, were fascinated by nature and its awesome and tempestuous power or as a source of spiritual inspiration.

Tenets of Romanticism:
-emotional exuberance
-unrestrained imagination
-spontaneity in both art and personal life (emotionally intense: suicide, duels to the death, madness, and strange illness)
-Romantic artists typically led bohemian lives: wearing their hair long and uncombed in preference to powdered wigs. Living in cold garrets vs. stiff drawing rooms.
-Rejected materialism and sought spiritual heights via their artwork.
-Individualists: believed firmly in the full development of one's unique human potential to be the supreme purpose in life.
-Driven by a sense of unlimited universe and by a yearning for the unattained, the unknown and the unknowable.
- See the growth of industry as an ugly, brutal attack on their beloved nature and on human personality: sought escape in unspoiled European lands or "exotic" foreign lands. However some did find an awesome, terribly moving power in the new industrial landscape.
-fascinated by color and diversity

Romantic view on History: history no longer a minor branch of philosophy, history was beautiful,exciting, and important in its own way. It was the art of change over time and to them, the key to the universe that was now perceived to be organic and dynamic. (not mechanical and static like the philosophes of the 18th century had believed) ==> Historical studies promoted the development of national aspirations and encouraged whole peoples to seeks out their special destinies in the past.

Romantic Literature: Britain the country where Romantic literature fully bloomed. All romantic writers were poets for romanticism found its distinctive voice in poetry.
ex: Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelly, and Keats

Romantic Music: In the medium of Music Romanticism was able to most fully realize its goals of free expression and emotional intensity. Classical composers of the 18th century had remained true to the well-defined structures (ex: classical symphony). Romantic composers used a great range of forms to create a thousand musical landscapes and evoke a host of powerful emotions.
-transformed the small orchestra --> x3 the size by adding wind instruments, percussion, and more brass and strings.
-more emphasis on music as important on itself (as well as musicians) --> Musicians had more prestige
-played for more common people (middle class --> trend of growing/more educated middle-class)
-Music came to be considered the greatest of the arts for how it achieved the most ecstatic effects and most perfectly realized the endless yearning of the soul.

Forerunners; Rousseau -- Father of Romanticism: nature is pure, and good and society is bad and corrupted.
Crystallized fully in the 1790s, primarily n England and Germany. The French revolution kindled the belief that radical reconstruction was also possible in cultural and artistic life.
Strong until the 1840s.
18th century British society:
-dominated by the landowning aristocracy, but that class was neither closed nor rigidly defined. ==> successful could buy land and become gentlefolk
-common people had more than usual opportunities of the postindustrial world
-Basic civil rights balanced by a tradition of deference to one's social superiors
-Parliament manipulated by the king and thoroughly undemocratic
-Only 8% of the pop. could vote
By the 1780's there was growing interest in Political reform.
However the French Revolution alarmed the aristocracy and thus any attempt to change the status quo was met w/ hostility. The Tory Party was particularly fearful of radical movement at home and abroad ==> Castlereagh initially works closely with Metternich to restore Conservative balance to Europe and after 1815, at home, the aristocracy repressed every kind of popular protest.
--> First step in this conservative direction the revision of the Corn Laws in 1815

==> The revision of the corn laws (see card) came during a time of widespread unemployment and postwar economic distressed. The result of the combination were massive protests and demonstrations by urban laborers who were supported by radical intellectuals.

1817 The Tory government responds to these demonstrations by temporarily suspending the traditional rights of peaceable assembly and habeas corpus.

1819Parliament passes the Six Acts (see card)
These acts were followed by the Saint Peter's Fields protests (see card). The savage break up of this protest illustrated the government's determination to repress and stand firm.

Ongoing industrial development not only created urban and social problems but also was also strengthening the upper-middle class. This strengthening class demanded a place along side the landed wealth of the aristocracy in terms of political power and social prestige. Call for many reforms (see Whigs)

1820 a less timid Tory Government moved in the direction of better urban administration, greater economic liberalism, and civil equality for Catholics.
-Prohibition on the imports of foreign grain were replaced with heavy tariffs
==> actions encourage the middle-class to push for more reform of Parliament so they could have a larger say in government:
1830 Whig ministry introduced "an act to amend the representation of the people of England and Wales" --> this bill was first defeated then passed in the House of Commons and then rejected by the House of Lords.
1832 Whigs get the king to promise to create enough new peers to pass the law --> to prevent this the House of Lords reluctantly allowed the bill to pass ( would rather it pass than their little club be ruined by upstart manufacturers and plutocrats). Protests had also been a determining factor in the passing of the bill.
==> Reform Bill of 1832 Passed (see card): 12% of the pop. can now vote and the House of Commons gains new members, many of which are from the new cities.

Chartist movement:
-1838 People's Charter produced (see card)
- 1839, 1842, and 1848 people sign petitions calling on Parliament to grant all men the right to vote.
-Parliament rejects all three petitions.

While working for universal male suffrage many working class people joined with the middle class manufactures to form the Anti-Corn Law League.
-Mass participation made this crusade possible
-Popular orators such as John Bright and Richard Cobden fire the people up.
-Argued: Lower food prices and more jobs depended on the repeal of the Corn Laws.
Climax of this movement occurs in 1845: The Year of the Irish
To avert disaster Tory prime minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs and a minority of his own party to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846 and allow free imports of grain ==> England escaped Famine and liberal doctrine of free trade became almost sacred dogma in Great Britain

1847 Tories pass the Ten Hours Act
==> Tories and Whigs compete vigorously for the support of the working class. This competition was key to Britain's peaceful evolution for the working class could make temporary alliances with either competitor to better their own conditions.
-Louis Philippe's "bourgeois monarchy": lack of social legislation and inactive.
- Politics was dominated by corruption and selfish special interests.
- Government's refusal to consider electoral reform heightened a sense of class injustice among the middle class shopkeepers, skilled artisans, and unskilled working people
==> Eventually a popular revolt occur in Paris: February 22nd, 1848 the barricades go up.

February 24th, 1848 Louis Philippe abdicated in favor of his grandson ==> common people in arms will tolerate no more monarchy ==> Common people proclaim a provisional republic (Second republic) that is headed by a 10 men executive committee and certified by the cries of approval from the revolutionary crowd.

The work of historians and journalist who had carefully documented and praised the First French republic bore fruit ==> these new revolutionaries were committed to republic, wanted common people to be able to reform society with wise legislation and immediately began to draft a new constitution for France:
- Universal male suffrage
- Freed all the salves in the French colonies
- Abolition of the Death penalty
- establishment of the ten hour workday for Paris

However there were profound differences in the revolutionary coalition of Paris:
Liberal Republicans: Middle class + Peasants. View universal male suffrage as the ultimate concession made to the popular forces and thus were opposed to any more radical reform. Fear of workers, fear that propertied people will lose land and be taxed more.
Radical Republicans/Socialists: influenced by utopian socialists, and appalled by the poverty and misery of the urban poor, they were committed to some form of socialism. As were many artisans (advocate strong craft unions and worker-owned business)

Worsening depression and rising unemployment brought the conflicting goals of these two groups to the fore in 1848:
- Louis Blanc (see card) pressed for recognition of a socialist right to work. Asserted that permanent government-sponsored cooperative workshops should be established for workers. These workshops would be an alternative to capitalist employment and a decisive step toward a new, noncompetitive social order.
-Moderate Republicans only wanted to provide temporary relief.
==> Compromise: national workshops (pick-up-and-shovel public works established ) a special commission under Blanc was established to "study the problem". Unsatisfactory compromise. However they were better than nothing and an army of national and international poor streamed into Paris.

Late April the French masses went to the election polls: new Constituent Assembly w/ 500 moderate republicans, 300 monarchists, and 100 hundred radicals.

Socialist revolution frightens the middle/upper classes ad the peasants (bonded over their ownership of private property): the newly elected assembly is thus dedicated to a republic and strongly opposed to radicals

After the elections the clash of ideologies became a clash of arms:
- new government's executive committee drops Blanc and with him all representation of the Parisian working class.
- May 15 artisans and unskilled workers, driven by desperation, invaded the Constituent assembly and tried to proclaim a new revolutionary state.
- National Guard crushes the uprising. However workshops cont. to grow more radical.
- June 22 government dissolves the national workshops in Paris and gives the workers the choice of joining the army or going to workshops in the provinces.
==> Provokes a violent uprising, for the common people were no losing their life-sustaining relief. Barricades spring up and a terrible class war begins.
==> Army + peasants + upper/middle classes defeat the working class. After the three terrible "June Days' the republican army under General Louis Cavaignac stood victorious.

==> revolution is a failure.
-Instead of a democratic the republic, the Constituent Assembly completed a constitution feature a strong executive.
==> Louis Napoleon able to win a landslide victory in the election of 1848 and France comes under the rule of a semi-authoritarian regime (see card).
Instigating event: the nationalistic Hungarians demand national autonomy, full civil liberties and universal suffrage.
The monarchy in Vienna hesitates --> Viennese students and workers take to the streets in response and peasants disorder breaks out in various parts of the empire.
Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand I capitulates and promises reform + liberal constitution
Metternich flees to London.
Breakdown: However the revolutionary Coalition is not stable (Austria mostly agricultural and serfdom still existed):
- March 20 the monarchy (as part of its capitulation before the upheaval) abolished serfdom, its degrading forced labor, and feudal services. ==> the newly freed serfs lost interest in the political and social questions agitating the cities
-Urban coalition breaks down: Artisan and workers and urban rise up and present their own demands for socialist workshops and universal voting rights for men ==> middle class grows fearful
- conflicting national aspirations: Hungarian revolutionary leaders push through a very liberal constitution however they also wanted to transform the mosaic of provinces and peoples that was the kingdom of Hungary into a unified, centralized, Hungarian nation. minority groups (Croats, Serbs, and Romanians), who made up roughly half of the population, did not want this to happen for each group felt entitled to political autonomy and cultural independence. ==> Habsburg monarchy exploits the fear of these groups and these groups were soon fighting against the Hungarian government.
- Czech nationalists come into conflict with German nationalists in Prague

Restoration of the Habsburgs:
- Conservative aristocrats rally around Emperor Ferdinand
- Archduchess Sophia (married to the emperor's brother) provides a rallying point: Emperor Ferdinand, because of his shameful/weak response to the student protests, should abdicate in favor of her son Francis Joseph. ==> Powerful nobles w/ high positions in the gov./army/church agree with her. ==> Organize secret conspiracy

June 17 army crushes worker revolt in Prague.
Some Austrian officials + nobles lead the minority nationalities of Hungary against the revolutionary government.
October peasant troops of the regular Austrian army attack the working-class radicals in vienna and retook the city.
==> Defeat of the revolution: Francis Joseph was crowned emperor
However Hungary was not yet totally under control --> Nicholas I of Russia, a conservative, lends a hand and on June 6, 1849 he sends Russian troops into Hungary and subdues the country. ==> Ruled Hungary as a conquered territory
Historical context: Prussia the largest and most influential German kingdom after Austria. Prior to 1848 the goal of middle-class Prussian liberals had been to transform absolutist Prussia into a liberal constitutional monarchy that would lead the 38 states of the German Confederation into a liberal, unified nation that was desired by liberals through out Europe.
Instigating event: French revolution of 1848 encourages Prussian liberals to press heir demands.
-In March Artisans and factory workers revolt in Berlin and they formed a temporary alliance with the middle-class liberals

The monarch, Frederick William IV (r. 1840-1861) gave up:
-March 21 promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created

Counter revolution:
-Workers want more and Aristocrats want less form the new liberal constitution
-Workers issues a series of democratic and vaguely socialist demands
- Middle-class allies are troubles and conservative cliques gather around the king to urge a counter-revolution

As an elected Prussian Constituent Assembly met in Berlin to write a constitution for the Prussian state a self appointed group of liberals from various German states successfully called for a national assembly to begin writing a federal constitution for a unified German state.

However soon the Frankfurt assembly was absorbed in a battle with Denmark over the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein:
- the provinces were inhabited primarily by Germans but were ruled by the King of Denmark, although Holstein was a member of the German Confederation.
- Frederick VII, the new nationalistic king, tried to integrate both provinces into the rest of his state, and the Germans in these provinces revolted.
==> National Assembly debates the issues and then calls on the Prussian army to oppose Denmark in the name of the German Nation ==> Prussia obliges

March 1849 the National Assembly completes its draft of a liberal constitution and elected King Frederick William of Prussia emperor of the new German national state (minus Austria and Schleswig-Holstein).
However by early 1849 the counter-revolution had been successful almost everywhere: Frederick William has reasserted his royal authority, disbanded the Prussian Constituent Assembly, and granted his subjected a conservative constitution. Reasserted his divine right to rule.
==> Revolution crushed b/c had waited too long and allowed themselves to be distracted by nationalist issues
Frederick William attempts to get the small monarchs of Germany to elect him emperor (only wanted to be emperor on his terms), Austria and Russia force Prussia to renounce all its schemes of unification in late 1850, and Prussia complied and the German Confederation was reestablished.