Ideologies and Upheavals 1815-1850
Terms in this set (92)
Why did Britain start the Industrial revolution?
1.) Raw materials form colonies, place to export. Manufactured goods to expanding market.
2.) Growing middle-class
3.) Growing free-market, English Mercantilism
4.) Stable state --> stable government.
5.) Agricultural revolution
-- food increases, pop. increases
-- extra money available for non-essentials
--Class of landless peasants --> putting out system (early industrialization) ==> becomes wage earning laborers
6.) British geography:
-Isolated from war on the continent
- Rivers ==> provide power (textile mills)
-fewer internal tariffs
-stable government banks (introduced during the glorious revolution)
-emphasis on individual hard work and innovation
- Hargreaves: spinning Jenny
-Arkwright: water frame
-Cartwright: power loom
9.) Energy/ resources:
-over-harvested food ==> found other sources of power --> coal
-James Watt: inventor of the steam engine
Congress of Vienna
Allies of the Quadruple Alliance (Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain) (+ minor host delegates from the smaller European nations) meet to fashion a general peace settlement that would last and not sow the seeds of another war. In this moderation toward France the allies were motivated by self-interest and traditional ideas about the balance of power: the balance of power meant an international equilibrium of political and military forces that would discourage aggression and prevent the domination of Europe by any single state. The idea of the balance of power was used to settle man disputes during the course of the Congress.
France: Pre-the One Hundred Days, initially very lenient
-Restored the Bourbon dynasty
-given boundaries it possessed in 1792 (greater than those of 1789)
- no war reparations to be paid
==> no spirit of injustice/ revenge created
France: Post-the One Hundred Days
-Louis XVIII restored to the throne again.
-France loses a little territory
-Had to pay an indemnity of 700 million Francs
- Has to support a large army of occupation for five years.
Low Countries (Belgium + Holland):
-united under an enlarged Dutch monarchy that would be capable of opposing France more effectively.
-receives territory on France's eastern border so as to stand as the "sentinel on the Rhine" against France.
- Part of Saxony (see below)
-Already won colonies and strategic outposts during the long wars
-Gave up territories to Belgium and Southern German
-Takes the rich provinces of Venetia and Lombardy in northern Italy as well was the former Polish possessions and new lands n the eastern coast of the Adriatic.
-Small Polish kingdom restored under Tsar Alexander I's rule (see below)
Conflict b/w Russia + Prussia and the other states almost leads to renewed war in 1815:
-Tsar Alexander I of Russian wanted to restore the ancient kingdom of Poland and rule it. The Prussians agreed with his proposal provided that they could have the large and wealthy kingdom of Saxony.
- Metternich and Castlereagh (see cards) feared that this would upset the balance of power --> Sign a secret alliance with Talleyrand (see card) ==> war seems imminent.
- Threat of war causes the rules of Russian and Prussia to moderate their demands: Russia accepts a smaller Polish kingdom and Prussia takes only part of Saxony.
==> Retains balance of power and allows France to regain its status as a Great Power.
One Hundred Days: Napoleon escapes from his "comic kingdom" on the island of Elba and rules France for less than 100 days. The peace concluded after Napoleon's final defeat in Waterloo was still moderate towards France.
Members of the Quadruple Alliance agree to meet periodically to discuss their common interests and to consider appropriate measures for the maintenance of peace in Europe. ==> beginning of the European "Congress system"
Creates the German Confederation
This was just the international side to the peace declaration.
Prince Klemens von Metternich
Foreign minister of Austria: instrumental in the Congress of Vienna.
Personal: middle ranks of the landed nobility. Was Austrian foreign minister from 1809-1848. Extremely loyal to his class and defended their rights and privileges for his entire life (Reasoned that the nobility was one of Europe's most ancient institutions and conservatives, like him, regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions. Believed that Liberalism led to war and bloodshed). Also feared the nationalism that tended to arise from liberalism (see Austria and nationalism) which was something Austria could not accommodate.
In 1815 under his leadership, Austria, Prussia, and Russia embarked on a crusade against the ideas and politics of the dual revolution. This crusade lasted until 1848: (Timeline):
-Formation of the Holy Alliance (see card)
-1820 revolutionaries succeed in forcing the monarchs of Spain and the Two Siciles to grant liberal constitutions --> Conference of Troppau called (see card) and the principle of active intervention proclaimed --> Austria and France restore the monarchs of Spain and the Two Siciles.
-Metternich is unable to stop the break away of the new Latin American republics from Spain
-Unable to undue the dynastic changes in 1830 and 1831 in France and Belgium
-His policies however dominated the German Confederation (created by the peace settlement), Austria, and the Italian Peninsula: Forced through the Carlsbad Decrees (see card)
Created by the 1815 peace settlement.
Composed of 38 independent German states, including Prussia and Austria.
Met in complicated assemblies that were dominated by Austria, with Prussia as a willing junior partner in the execution of repressive measures.
Issued by Metternich through the German Confederation in 1819.
-Required that the 38 German member states to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers.
-Established a permanent committee with spies and informers to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.
Foreign minister of Great Britain. Involved in the Congress of Vienna.
Foreign minister of France. Involved in the Congress of Vienna.
formed by Austria, Prussia and Russia in Sept. 1815 in order to curb the spread of the dual revolution within these countries boarders. Initially proposed by Tsar Alexander I.
Became the symbol of the repression of liberal and revolutionary movements all over Europe.
Conference at Troppau (Active intervention principle)
1820 revolutionaries succeeded in forcing the monarchs of Spain and the southern Italian kingdom of the Two Sicilies to grant liberal constitutions against the monarch's wills.
Metternich, horrified, calls a conference at Troppau in Austria under the provisions of the Quadruple Alliance.
Metternich and Alexander I proclaim the principle of active intervention to maintain all autocratic regimes whenever they were threatened.
1821 Austrian forces march into Naples and restore Fredinand I to the throne of the two Siciles and French armies restore the Spanish monarchy.
Regarded tradition as the basic source of human institutions.
Wanted to return to pre-1789 Europe with the proper state and society that had existed then that rested upon a judicious blend of monarchy, bureaucracy, aristocracy, and respectful commoners.
Stressed tradition, hereditary monarch, a strong and powerful landowning aristocracy, and an official church.
Blamed liberals for stirring up the lower classes who they believed wanted nothing more than peace and quiet.
Believed liberalism to have been the cause of much war and bloodshed.
Nationalism and the Austrian Empire
The idea of self-determination, which liberals championed because they believed that each people had a right to establish its own independent government and seek to fulfill its own destiny, threatened the existence of aristocracy and the Austrian Empire.
The Austrian empire of the Habsburgs was composed of many different peoples: Widely scattered and divided
-(1)Germans 1/4th the pop. and the dominate group
-(2)Magyars (Hungarians) dominated the kingdom of Hungary, although they were not the majority pop. in Hungary.
-(3)Czechs were concentrated in Bohemia and Moravia.
-large groups of Italians, Poles, and Ukrainians
-small groups of Slovenes, Croats, Serbs, Ruthenians, and Romanians.
These different ethnic groups often lived in the same provinces and thus different parts of the empire had different languages, customs, and institutions.
This multinational state was both strong and weak:
Strong: large population and vast territory
Weak: many potentially dissatisfied nationalities. ==> Metternich opposes liberalism and nationalism because Austria cannot accommodate these ideologies and remain a nation.
Other conservatives supported Austria because they could imagine no better fate for the jumble of small nationalities in central Europe.
Liberalism (and economic liberalism)
Central principles: liberty and equality
Energized by the success of the American and French revolution liberalism cont. to pose a radical challenge to conservatism.
-representative government: however desire property qualifications attached to the right to vote --> limits vote the upper-middle classes.
-equality before the law (not legally separated classes)
-Individual freedoms: freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest.
-opposed government intervention in social and economic affairs even if the need for action seemed great to social critics and reformers. Unrestricted Private enterprise and no government interference with the economy. "Laissez faire", free economy. (This point of liberalism was highly criticized by the opponents of liberalism).
==> This idea of economic liberalism was embraced by the British and in the early 18th century old restrictions on trade and industry were relaxed or eliminated. This liberalism promoted the growth of the industrial revolution. However economic liberalism also became the doctrine associated with the business class and was used by this class to justify their right to do as they pleased with their factory -- labor unions outlawed
==> Often called "classical" liberalism in the U.S to distiguish it from modern American liberalism which usually in favor of more government intervention on behalf of social needs and economic regulation.
In Europe by 1815 only with Louis XVIII's constitutional charter (see card) and England's parliament and historic rights had any of the liberal program been realized.
Liberalism, although it still retained its cutting edge, was seen as somewhat of a duller tool than it had been because of the emergence of more radical ideological competitors in the early 19th century.
Liberalism in the early 19th century also became more closely associated with narrow class interests (see representative gov. above) esp. the middle class.
Scottish philosophy professor who was the first person to persuasively formulate the idea of free economy.
His work "Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations" (1776) founded modern economics.
-Was highly critical of mercantilism and government attempts to regulate trade and economic activity.
-Preferred free competition and the "invisible hand" of the self-regulating market, which he believed would give all citizens a fair and equal opportunity to do what they did best.
-Argued free competition would increase the income of everyone, not just the wealthy,
(1766-1834): Influential in making economic liberalism an ideology of business interest. His ideas (not his intention) were used by the business minded middle class to justify opposition to any kind of government action to protect or improve the lot of workers: if workers were poor it was their own fault for breeding so much.
"Essay on the Principle of Population" (1798)
-Argued that pop. always tends to grow faster than the supply of food.
-The only was to ward off the "positive checks" to population growth of war, famine, and disease was for young men and women to marry later and thus check the population in this way (Not optimistic about this because he believed the attraction b/w the sexes was too strong)
(1772-1823): Influential in making economic liberalism and ideology of business interest. His ideas (not his intention) were used by the business minded middle class to justify opposition to any kind of government action to protect or improve the lot of workers: if workers were poor it was their own fault for breeding so much.
ideas/beliefs: Influenced by Tomas Malthus's ideas on pop. (see Tomas Malthus)
-"Iron law of wages": because of the pressure of pop. growth wages should be just high enough to prevent people from starving.
-More radical than the liberals
-Inspired by the French revolution and the Jacksonian democracy in the young American republic they called for an end to property ownership as a qualification for voting, at least for males. ==> lead to democracy b/c allows masses to join the government
-Detest the power of monarchy, the privilege of the aristocracy, the great wealth of the upper-middle class
-More willing to endorse violent upheavals to achieve their goals
Radical idea that emerged after 1815 and would have enormous influence on the modern world.
3 main points of nationalism:
1.) Normally evolves from real or imagined cultural unity, which manifests itself commonly in a common language, history, and territory.
2.) Usually seek to turn this cultural unity into political reality so that the territory of each people coincides with its state boundaries. ==> this premise made nationalism so potentially explosive in central and eastern Europe after 1815 when there were either too few states (Austria, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire), of to many (the Italian peninsula and the German Confederation) and when different peoples overlapped and intermingled.
3.) Modern nationalism had its immediate origins in the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars: Nationalism was harnessed by the French republic during the reign of terror to repel foreign foes and all across Europe patriots tried to kindle nationalist flames in the war against Napoleon.
Early nationalists typically believed that every nation had a right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit. Confident that the freedom of other nations would not lessen the freedom of their own nation. Rather the symphony of nations would promote the harmony and ultimate unity of all peoples.
Negative side of nationalism:
-Although they talked of serving all of humanity they also stressed the differences among people.
-strong "we" and "they" mentality with the "the" often being the enemy.
-To this "we-they" outlook it was all to easy for nationalists to add 2 volatile ingredients: a sense of national mission and a sense of national superiority
==> this "we-they" outlook mixed with these ingredients often as the potential to lead to crusades and counter-crusades
Nationalism and Liberalism/radical, democratic republicanism
Between 1815-1850 most people who believed in nationalism were either liberals or democratic republicans. This link between these two concepts was caused because of several reasons:
1.) A common faith in the creativity and nobility of the people: Liberals and democrats saw the people as the ultimate source of all government because the people, or at least some of them, elected their officials and governed themselves within the framework of personal liberty. Yet such forms of self-government could only be obtained if the people were united by common traditions and common loyalties (most commonly relied above all on a common language for they believed that shared language forged the basic unity of all people and that this unity transcended local, provincial, and class interests)
(1744-1803) German pastor and philosopher
Argued that every people has its own particular spirit and genius, which is expressed through culture and language.
However Herder was unable to define the uniqueness of each culture without comparing and contrasting them. ==> contributes to the strong sense of "we" and "they"
Leader of the Czech cultural revival and passionate democrat and nationalist historian.
==> Works articulated the "we" and "they" mentality
-In his histories he lauded the Czech people's achievements, which he characterized as a long struggle against German domination.
French historian and author of "The People" 1846.
-In his work "the people" he wrote each citizen "learns to recognize his country...as a note in the grand concert; through it he himself participates and loves the world" ==> articulates the nationalist belief that every nation has the right to exist in freedom and develop its character and in allowing these nations to have these rights a symphony of nations would arise that would promote the harmony and unity of all people
-However his work also is tainted by the "we" "they" mentality and he could not help speaking in 1846 of the "superiority of France" for the principles espoused in the French revolution had made France the "salvation of man-kind".
-Natural goodness of the masses (working classes, artisans, and bourgeois)
-opposed to government run by aristocrats
- government run by federation of classes (no class gone) and government intervention
French Utopian Socialism
Socialism was a new radical doctrine that emerged after 1815. Almost all early socialists were French.
Although these French socialists differed on many specific points, they were all acutely aware of the political revolution in France and and the rise of modern industry in England had begun the transformation of society. Yet they were disturbed by what they saw:
-Liberal politics, such as competition for votes, and liberal economics, such as free markets and the end of guild regulation, appeared to be fomenting selfish individualism and splitting the community up.
==> believed that there was an urgent need for a further reorganization of society to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
Key ideas of French Socialism: Planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property
-economic planning: inspired by the emergency measures of 1793-1794 in France these early socialists argued that the government should rationally organize the economy and not depend on destructive competition to do the job.
-intense desire to help the poor and protect them from the rich ==> preach near economic equality
-private property should be strictly regulated by the government or that it should be abolished and replaced by state or community ownership
The message of French utopian socialists interacted with the experiences of French urban workers:
-(In Paris esp.) workers cherished the memory of the radical phase of the French revolution and its efforts the regulate economic life and protect the poor.
-Skilled artisans with their long history of guilds, apprenticeships, and control of quality and wage rates were violently opposed to laissez-faire that prevented them from organizing into groups and promoted brutal competition.
==> Goals of workers and utopian theorists reinforce each other and in the 1830-40s a socialist movement emerged in Paris.
==> Economic arguments still weak and their programs often seem to fanciful ==> up to Marx to establish the firm foundation of modern socialism
Count Henri de Saint-Simon
(1760-1825) One of the most influential early socialist thinkers.
Personal: French nobleman. Curious combination of a radical thinker and successful land speculator.
-Proclaimed that the industrial development had may possibilities
-The key to progress was proper social organization: Saint-Simon believed that the proper arrangement of society required that the "parasites" of society (the court, the aristocracy, lawyers, and churchmen) make way for the "doers" of society (leading scientists, engineers, and industrialists).
-The "doers" would carefully plan the economy and guide it forward by undertaking vast public works projects and establishing investment banks.
-Every social institution ought to have as its main goal improving the conditions for the poor.
Personal: French. Lonely, saintly man.
Beliefs/ideas: described a socialist utopia in lavish mathematical detail
-Envisioned self-sufficient communities of 1,620 people living communally on 5,000 acres devoted to a combination of agriculture and industry.
-Total emancipation of women: extremely critical of middle-class family like because he viewed most marriages as only another kind of prostitution -- young women were shamelessly "sold" to their future husbands for dowries and other financial considerations. Fourier called for free unions based only on love, and sexual freedom. ==> alarmed the middle-class and made the socialist revolution appear doubly dangerous because it was now calling for a liberation of women and workers
Several Utopian communities were founded along the lines he prescribed in the U.S.A.
Personal: journalist, French.
- In his work "Organization of Work" (1839) he urged workers to push for universal voting rights and to take control of the state in a peaceful manner.
-full power of the state should be directed at setting up government-backed workshops and factories to guarantee full employment. ==> right to work sacred.
Louis Blanc and a worker named Albert represented the republican socialists in the provisional government that was established during the French revolution of 1848: pressed for recognition of a socialist right to work, and permanent government sponsored workshops.
Eventually was dropped from the executive committee because of upper/middle class + peasant fear of the socialist revolution.
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
Personal: French socialist, self-educated printer.
-In his pamphlet "What is Property" (1840) he argued that property was noting but theft for it was profit that was stolen from workers who were the sources of all wealth.
-often considered an anarchist because of his fear of the state
Personal: husband tried to kill er.
Freedom: Social equality for women and more specifically legalization of divorce, No oppression, especially of workers, Justice; no death penalty
-Nécessité de faire un bon accueil aux femmes étrangèrs (1835)
- Peregrinations of a Pariah (1838)
- Méphis, ou le Prolétaire (1838)
- Promenades dans Londres (1840)
- The Workers' Union (1843)
-Workers should form unions (that also promote equality for women): workers largest social group and should use their unions to fight for the legalization of divorce, abolition of the death penalty, better lifestyles for themselves, and the social equality of women
Socialist (Revisionist -- breaks with Marx)
- Die neue Zeit (1898)
- Evolutionary Socialism (1899): statistically showed the Marx's prediction that the working class would be more impoverished as industrialization progressed was wrong.
-Capitalism not about to collapse so Socialism had to be obtained through slow change
- Advocates for political reforms that will allow all men to vote and thus socialist representatives can be elected which will then gradually change the system
- Joint socialist movement b/w working and middle class because he believed should benefit all classes
Founder of the Icarian movement.
Wanted to replace capitalist production with worker cooperatives.
Advocator of utopian socialism
His mills in Scotland with their social and industrial welfare programs were places of pilgrimage for statesmen and social reformers.
Romanticist artist (Pianist)
Polish -- Duchy of Warsaw
personal: father owned a mill company and he saw the plight of the worker up close. Prussian.
Published the Communist Manifesto with Marx
Personal: son of a Jewish lawyer who had converted to Christianity. Atheistic. Studied philosophy at the University of Berlin before turning to journalism and economics. Read man French socialist thinkers.
-Fled to England broke following the revolutions of 1848
- Shared Fourier's view of middle-class marriage as legalized prostitution ==> favors the emancipation of women and the abolition of family
-1848 published the communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engles
-"Capital": the weighty exposition of his socialist theories.
- Thought the French Socialists appeal to the middle-class and the state to help the poor was ridiculous and naive because, he believed, the interests of the middle class and those of the industrial working class were inevitably opposed to each other. In his view, one class had always exploited the other and with the advent of modern industry the class divide was becoming even clearer: the middle class (the bourgeoisie) vs. the modern working class (the proletariat) (idea based of the work of Georg Hegel)
- Believed that just as the bourgeoisie had triumphed over the feudal aristocracy the proletariat would triumph over the bourgeoisie via violent revolution. --> while the tiny minority grows richer, the ever-poorer proletariat was constantly growing in size and class-consciousness. In this process the proletariat were aided by a portion of the bourgeoisie who had gone over to the proletariat (like himself and Engles).
-Following David Ricardo, who had taught that labor was the source of all value, Marx went on to argue that profits were wages stolen from workers.
-Marx also incorporated Engel's charges of terrible oppression of the new class of factory workers in England which lent Marx's doctrines more credibly as they seemed to be based on hard fact.
Although Marx's ideas were not well known in 1848 they were very influential in the alter 19th century as he appeared to unite sociology, economics, and all human history in a vast and imposing edifice.
The Communist Manifesto
Published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
(1770-1831) Marx's theory of historical evolution was built off of the philosophy of Georg Hegel
Personal: German philosopher.
-Believed that history is "ideas in motion": each age is represented by a dominant set of ideas, which produces opposing ideas (antithesis) and eventually a new synthesis.
-thus history has pattern and purpose
Literary and artistic movement that reached it's peak during the early 19th century.
-Revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment: Classicism was essentially composed of a set of artistic rules and standards, a notion that went well with the Enlightenment's belief in rationality, order, and restraint. The classicists believed that the ancient Greeks and Romans had discovered eternally valid aesthetic rules and that artisans should follow them. Classicists were able to enforce these notions during the 18th century because they dominated the courts and academies for which artists worked.
-This revolt is esp. evident in their differing views on NATURE: classicists were not particularly interested in nature, instead choosing to focus of humans, but when portrayed it was portrayed as beautiful, chaste, like an 18th century formal garden. The romantics, in contrast, were fascinated by nature and its awesome and tempestuous power or as a source of spiritual inspiration.
Tenets of Romanticism:
-spontaneity in both art and personal life (emotionally intense: suicide, duels to the death, madness, and strange illness)
-Romantic artists typically led bohemian lives: wearing their hair long and uncombed in preference to powdered wigs. Living in cold garrets vs. stiff drawing rooms.
-Rejected materialism and sought spiritual heights via their artwork.
-Individualists: believed firmly in the full development of one's unique human potential to be the supreme purpose in life.
-Driven by a sense of unlimited universe and by a yearning for the unattained, the unknown and the unknowable.
- See the growth of industry as an ugly, brutal attack on their beloved nature and on human personality: sought escape in unspoiled European lands or "exotic" foreign lands. However some did find an awesome, terribly moving power in the new industrial landscape.
-fascinated by color and diversity
Romantic view on History: history no longer a minor branch of philosophy, history was beautiful,exciting, and important in its own way. It was the art of change over time and to them, the key to the universe that was now perceived to be organic and dynamic. (not mechanical and static like the philosophes of the 18th century had believed) ==> Historical studies promoted the development of national aspirations and encouraged whole peoples to seeks out their special destinies in the past.
Romantic Literature: Britain the country where Romantic literature fully bloomed. All romantic writers were poets for romanticism found its distinctive voice in poetry.
ex: Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelly, and Keats
Romantic Music: In the medium of Music Romanticism was able to most fully realize its goals of free expression and emotional intensity. Classical composers of the 18th century had remained true to the well-defined structures (ex: classical symphony). Romantic composers used a great range of forms to create a thousand musical landscapes and evoke a host of powerful emotions.
-transformed the small orchestra --> x3 the size by adding wind instruments, percussion, and more brass and strings.
-more emphasis on music as important on itself (as well as musicians) --> Musicians had more prestige
-played for more common people (middle class --> trend of growing/more educated middle-class)
-Music came to be considered the greatest of the arts for how it achieved the most ecstatic effects and most perfectly realized the endless yearning of the soul.
Forerunners; Rousseau -- Father of Romanticism: nature is pure, and good and society is bad and corrupted.
Crystallized fully in the 1790s, primarily n England and Germany. The French revolution kindled the belief that radical reconstruction was also possible in cultural and artistic life.
Strong until the 1840s.
"Storm and Stress" (Sturm and Drang) group
Name of early German romantics of the 1770-1780s.
==> emphasizes romantics emotional intensity
(1770-1850) Leader of English romanticism. Poet.
Personal: English, graduated from Cambridge, traveled to France and married a french woman, and was deeply influenced by Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution. Returned to England during the war and the terror and settled on the country side with his sister and Coleridge (see card)
-Published "Lyrical Ballads" (1798) with Coleridge. Highly influential: defied classical rules by abandoning the flowery poetic conventions for the language of the common people and infusing simple subjects with lofty majesty. (This work was first ignored, criticized, then praised)
- nature power to elevate and instruct
- simple love of nature
- his conception of poetry: "spontaneous overflow of powerful feeling recollected in tranquility"
More conservative in his old age however.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge
(1772-1834) English romantic poet.
Published "Lyrical Ballads" with Wordsworth in 1798
(1771-1832) Romantic poet who personified the romantic movement's fascination with history. Deeply influenced by German romanticism, esp. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Personal: Born in Edinburgh and raised on his grandfather's farm where he became enchanted with old ballads and tales of the Scottish border.
-translated Goethe's famous "Gotz von Berlichingen"
- composed long narrative poems and a series of historical novels
-excelled in re-creating the spirit of the bygone ages and great historical events, esp. those in Scotland.
Germaine de Stael
Historical context: lived during the French revolution, where classicism remained strong (esp. under Napoleon) and thus inhibited the growth of the Romantic movement.
Personal: full name, Germaine de Stael. Maintained a famous Salon. Franco-Swiss writer living in exile (Banished twice by Napoleon from France).
-"On Germany"(1810): a study of Germany that extolled the spontaneity and enthusiasm of German writers and thinkers. This work had a powerful impact on post-1815 France.
- "Corinne" (1807): On Italy.
- Urged individuals to abandon traditional rules and classical models and instead encouraged them to embrace experimentation, emotion, and enthusiasm.
-Liberal (experiences in the French revolution)
-Advocated equal rights for women (own experiences) and believed that only with equal rights and duties -- in education, careers, love, and marriage relations -- could ay woman ever hope to realize her emotional and intellectual potential.
(1802-1855) Greatest French Romantic writer of poetry and prose.
Personal: French. Son of a Napoleonic general.
-His powerful novels exemplified romantic fascination with fantastic characters, strange settings, and human emotions.
- "Hunchback of Notre Dame" (1831)
- A great admirer of William Shakespeare, whom classical critics had derided as undisciplined and excessive, he championed romanticism in drama
- "Hernani" (1830): A famous play by his that actively broke all traditional rules, as Hugo renounced his early conservatism and equated freedom in literature with liberty in politics and society.
George Sand (Amandine Aurore Lucie Dupin)
Personal: George Sand was her pen name. After 8 years of unhappy marriage Dupin left her husband and took her two children to Paris to pursue her career as a writers. Achieved fame and wealth as an author. A striking individual -- preferred men's clothing and cigars, and had many affairs.
- wrote over 80 novels on a variety of romantic and social themes.
- her semi-autobiographical novel "Lelia" was shockingly modern, as it deviled deeply into her tortuous quest for sexual and personal freedom.
Romanticism and Nationalism
In both Central and Eastern Europe nationalism and romanticism reinforced each other.
==> Seeking a unique greatness of every people, romantics plumbed their own histories and cultures. ==> turned their attention to peasant life and transcribed the folksongs, tales, and proverbs that the cosmopolitan Enlightenment had disdained.
- Grimm brothers save German fairy tales from oblivion
-Slavic romantics converted spoken peasant languages into modern written languages.
-Rejected 18th century attempts to force Russian poetry into the classical form
-His lyrical genius helped mold the modern literary language.
(1798-1863) Greatest and moving Romantic painter in France.
Personal: Most likely the illegitimate son of French foreign minister Talleyrand.
-Master of drama, color, and emotion
-Fascinated with remote and exotic subjects
-Passionate spokesman for freedom
-"Liberty leading the People": celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general and the revolution in Frnce in particular
Joseph M. W. Turner
(1751-1851) One of England's most notable Romantic painters.
- fascinated with the power and terror of nature; painted wild storms and sinking ships
- the contrast of his interpretations of nature against Constables interpretations of nature aptly symbolized the tremendous emotional range of the romantic movement.
(1776-1837) One of England's most notable romantic painters.
- fascinated with nature: depicted it as gentle -- humans beings were at one with their environment. Painted unspoiled nature.
- the contrast of his interpretations of nature against Turner's interpretations of nature aptly symbolized the tremendous emotional range of the romantic movement.
Casper David Friedrich
Germany's greatest Romantic painter
- "Traveler Looking over a Sea of Fog" (1815)
- His works often focus on dark silhouetted figures, silently contemplating an eerie landscape.
- believed that humans were only an insignificant part of an all embracing higher unity.
Ludwig von Beethoven
(1770-1827) First great master of Romanticism. Leading concert pianist of his day.
Personal: at the peak of his fame Beethoven began to lose his hearing --> contemplated suicide but eventually overcame his despair and continued to pour out immortal music.
-Used contrasting themes and tones to produce dramatic forms and inspiring resolution
- Work includes symphonies, chamber music, sonatas for violin and piano, masses, an opera, and a great many songs.
-fully exploited the richness and beauty of the Piano.
(1811-1886) Famous Romantic composer who was lionized as the greatest pianist of his age.
(1784-1840) Famous Romantic violinist.
National Liberation in Greece
Historical context: Since the 15th century the Greeks had been living under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. Despite the centuries of foreign rule the Greeks had survived as a people -- united by their language and Greek Orthodox religion.
The increase of nationalism and desire for independence that occurred in the 19th century inspired a Greek revolution in 1821: the rising national movement first led to the formation of secret societies and then to revolt in 1821, led by Alexander Ypsilanti.
The Great Powers were opposed to all revolution, including the Greek revolution ==> refused to back Ypsilanti and supported the Ottoman Empire.
However for many Europeans the Greek cause was a holy one:
- Educated Americans and Europeans were in love with Classical Greece
- Russians were stirred by the piety of their Orthodox Brethren
- Romantic artists and writers championed the revolt.
1827, due to popular demands at home, Great Britain, France, and Russia aided the Greeks and direct Turkey to accept an armistice. --> Turkish refuse -- Three powers send their navies --> Trap the Turkish fleet at Navarino and destroy it.
Russia, during the course of this, declared another war of expansion on Turkey ==> led to establishment of a Russian protectorate over much of present-day Romania
1830 Greece declared independent by Great Britain, France and Russia. The Great powers than installed a German prince as king of the new country in 1832.
Leader of the Greek revolution. A Greek patriot and general in the Russian army.
Liberalism and Great Britain
18th century British society:
-dominated by the landowning aristocracy, but that class was neither closed nor rigidly defined. ==> successful could buy land and become gentlefolk
-common people had more than usual opportunities of the postindustrial world
-Basic civil rights balanced by a tradition of deference to one's social superiors
-Parliament manipulated by the king and thoroughly undemocratic
-Only 8% of the pop. could vote
TIME LINE OF LIBERAL REFORM IN BRITAIN + KEY CONTEXT
By the 1780's there was growing interest in Political reform.
However the French Revolution alarmed the aristocracy and thus any attempt to change the status quo was met w/ hostility. The Tory Party was particularly fearful of radical movement at home and abroad ==> Castlereagh initially works closely with Metternich to restore Conservative balance to Europe and after 1815, at home, the aristocracy repressed every kind of popular protest.
--> First step in this conservative direction the revision of the Corn Laws in 1815
==> The revision of the corn laws (see card) came during a time of widespread unemployment and postwar economic distressed. The result of the combination were massive protests and demonstrations by urban laborers who were supported by radical intellectuals.
1817 The Tory government responds to these demonstrations by temporarily suspending the traditional rights of peaceable assembly and habeas corpus.
1819Parliament passes the Six Acts (see card)
These acts were followed by the Saint Peter's Fields protests (see card). The savage break up of this protest illustrated the government's determination to repress and stand firm.
Ongoing industrial development not only created urban and social problems but also was also strengthening the upper-middle class. This strengthening class demanded a place along side the landed wealth of the aristocracy in terms of political power and social prestige. Call for many reforms (see Whigs)
1820 a less timid Tory Government moved in the direction of better urban administration, greater economic liberalism, and civil equality for Catholics.
-Prohibition on the imports of foreign grain were replaced with heavy tariffs
==> actions encourage the middle-class to push for more reform of Parliament so they could have a larger say in government:
1830 Whig ministry introduced "an act to amend the representation of the people of England and Wales" --> this bill was first defeated then passed in the House of Commons and then rejected by the House of Lords.
1832 Whigs get the king to promise to create enough new peers to pass the law --> to prevent this the House of Lords reluctantly allowed the bill to pass ( would rather it pass than their little club be ruined by upstart manufacturers and plutocrats). Protests had also been a determining factor in the passing of the bill.
==> Reform Bill of 1832 Passed (see card): 12% of the pop. can now vote and the House of Commons gains new members, many of which are from the new cities.
-1838 People's Charter produced (see card)
- 1839, 1842, and 1848 people sign petitions calling on Parliament to grant all men the right to vote.
-Parliament rejects all three petitions.
While working for universal male suffrage many working class people joined with the middle class manufactures to form the Anti-Corn Law League.
-Mass participation made this crusade possible
-Popular orators such as John Bright and Richard Cobden fire the people up.
-Argued: Lower food prices and more jobs depended on the repeal of the Corn Laws.
Climax of this movement occurs in 1845: The Year of the Irish
To avert disaster Tory prime minister Robert Peel joined with the Whigs and a minority of his own party to repeal the Corn Laws in 1846 and allow free imports of grain ==> England escaped Famine and liberal doctrine of free trade became almost sacred dogma in Great Britain
1847 Tories pass the Ten Hours Act
==> Tories and Whigs compete vigorously for the support of the working class. This competition was key to Britain's peaceful evolution for the working class could make temporary alliances with either competitor to better their own conditions.
Demands: Anti-corn laws, universal male suffrage.
Petition Parliament for universal male suffrage.
Joined with the Whigs party to repeal the Corn laws
Eventually the Whigs and the Tories compete for the votes of the Chartists.
Members of the Whig Party of the English government.
Although led by great aristocrats, the Whig Party war more responsive to commercial and manufacturing interests. Thus they were supported by the new landed gentry and upper middle class (who were also supporters of Classical liberalism.)
The increasing numbers and wealth of the upper-middle class (manufactures and commercial groups) during industrial development, and desire for political power and social prestige equal to those of the landed aristocracy, led to them calling for many kinds of liberal reform: reform of town government, organization of a new police force, more rights for Catholics and dissenters, and reform of the Poor Laws that provided aid to some low-paid workers.
Members of the Tory party of the English government.
Supported and controlled by the traditional landed aristocracy.
Extremely fearful of radical action.
Historical: Laws that regulated foreign trade.
-Were not needed during the war with France because England was unable to import cheap grain from eastern Europe (even if it wanted to).
--> As shortages occurred and prices rose more marginal lands were brought under cultivations ==> benefits the landed aristocracy
Corn Laws of 1815:
-The Return of Peace of Europe meant that grain could b imported again and that prices would go down. This was desirable to everyone except the landed aristocracy.
--> Aristocracy pushes through Parliament changes to the corn laws: the new regulation prohibited the importation of foreign grain unless the price at home rose above 80 shillings per quarter ton
==> drives up prices of domestic grain
==> Symbol of aristocratic authority
Eventually repealed in 1846 through a combined effort of the Whigs, Chartists, and few key Tories (Prime minister Robert Peel) in order to avert famine (Irish Famine)
Passed in 1819 by Parliament in response to popular protest.
-Placed controls on a heavily taxed press
-Practically eliminated all mass meetings
==> promoted the Saint Peter's Field Protest
Saint Peter's Fields
Protest inspired by the passing of the Six Acts.
Took place in Manchester.
Was savagely broken up by armed cavalry.
Nicknamed the "battle of Peterloo"
==> Demonstrates government's willingness to repress and desire to stand firm.
Reform Bill of 1832
Reform: House of Commons gains many new middle-class members, esp. from new industrial cities.
This redistribution of seats reflects the shift in pop. to the N. manufacturing counties and the gradual emergence of an urban society.
-Number of voters increased by 50% --> 12% of the pop. can vote
- Middle-class groups in the urban pop. and substantial farmers who leased their land got the vote.
==> pressures in Britain temporarily released
==> Feeling that radical reform was not impossible in the current system
==> Feeling that legislation could solve problems and improve social conditions
-House of Commons all important legislative body
-In the future an obstructionist House of Lords could be brought into line by the threat of creating new peers
-New industrial areas of the country gained representation in the Commons and many old "rotten boroughs" (electoral districts that had few voters and that the landed aristocracy had bought and sold) were eliminated.
Produced in 1838. The embodiment of the principal radical program and the Chartist movement.
Inspired by the economic distress of the working class in the 1830-40s.
-Universal male suffrage
-Complete political democracy and rule by the common people are the means to a just and good society
Anti-Corn Law League
Alliance formed between the working-class people and middle-class manufactures.
This alliance (combined with the threat of famine) led to a repeal of the corn laws in 1846.
Passed in 1847 by the Tories in an attempt to gain support from the working class.
Reform: Limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours.
Ireland and the Great Famine
The people of Ireland did not benefit from the political competition in England.
Historical context: The majority of Irish people were Irish Catholic peasants who rented land from a tiny minority of Church of England Protestants, many of whom lived in England.
Exploited and growing rapidly in numbers the Irish peasants came to dependent on the potato crop, the size of which varied substantially from year to year. Potato famines are particularly difficult because crop failure cannot be detected in time to plant other crops. In addition, Ireland's subsistence potato economy lacked a well developed network of roads and trades capable of distributing other foods in time of disaster.
1845, 1846, 1848, and 1851 Potato crops failed in Ireland and throughout much of Europe ==> Results in high food prices, widespread suffering, and social upheaval.
In Ireland the Great Famine occurred:
-blight attacked the young plants and the tuber rotted
-starvation and disease were rampant
-Staggering pop. loss and many flee to the U.S and Great Britain.
-The British government had little response, and responded far to late. In addition the government actively supported heartless landowners with armed force --> tenants who cold not pay their rents were evicted and their homes broken up or burned.
==> Ireland remained a conquered provinces, with poor agricultural land and they gained little from the liberal reforms and industrial development that were rapidly transforming Britain.
Doctrine that actions are right/justified is they are done for the benefit/ promotes the happiness of the majority.
The greatest happiness for the greatest number of people should be the guide to conduct.
(1748-1832) British philosopher, jurist and social reformer.
-People try to avoid pain and gain pleasure (individualist but also can be applied to a group)
-"Greatest Good for the Greatest Number of People"
John Stuart Mill
(1806-1873) British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant. Most active around 1848
- Government should pass laws to protect individuals
French Revolution of 1830
-Begins with Charles X's accession to the throne. ==> revokes the constitutional charter --> no more assembly in Paris + other oppressive reforms
-New king (Philippe) put on the throne
==> The new king undertook many symbolic actions however in reality little was changed about the political situation in France:
-vote was only extended to 170,000 from 100,000
-Wealthy notable elite tightened its control as the old aristocracy retreated to the provinces
-For the upper-middle class there had merely been a change in dynasty to protect the status quo and the narrowly liberal institutions of 1815
==> Poor bitterly disappointment.
Created in 1848 by Louis XVIII (primarily in response to political pressure, however was theoretically a gift from the king).
- Economic and social gains made by sections of the middle class and the peasantry during the French Revolution were protected
- intellectual and artistic freedom was permitted
-a real parliament with upper and lower houses was established
- Only 100,000 of the wealthiest people, out of the 30 million pop. had the right to vote for deputies, who with the king and his ministers, made the laws of the nation.
-However those who did vote came from varying backgrounds: wealthy businessmen, war profiteers, successful professionals, ex-revolutionaries, large landowners from the old aristocracy, and the middle class. ==> old aristocracy minority of voting pop.
Ruler after the French Revolution (restored twice) (1814-1824)
Successor: Charles X
-refused to bow to the wishes of die-hard aristocrats such as his brother Charles. These aristocrats wished to sweep away all the revolutionary changes and return to old system of state.
- Louis appoints moderate royalists as his ministers. These ministers sought and obtained the support of the representatives elected to the lower Chamber of Deputies b/w 1816 and 1824.
- Constitutional Charter (see card)
Successor of: Louis XVIII
"Successor": (overthrown) Louis Philippe
Personal: True reactionary and in favor of the aristocracy --> wanted to sweep away revolutionary changes + Pro-absolutist power. Brother of Louis XVIII. Crowned in a lavish, medieval, 5 our ceremony in the cathedral of Reims.
-Repudiated the Constitutional Charter (b/c his changes were blocked by the deputies) in an attempted coup in July 1830. Nore more assembly.
- Issued decrees stripping the wealthy middle class of their right to vote
-Censored the press
==> Revolts in Paris in response of his reforms and Charles X was dethroned.
"Three Glorious Days"
Response to Charles X's reforms (see card Charles X).
Journalists and lawyers encourage an insurrection in the capital (Paris) by printers, other artisans, and small traders. The government collapsed and Charles was forced to flee. The upper-middle class, which had led the revolt, placed Louis Philippe on the throne.
"Successor of": Charles X --> Placed on the throne at the end of the 1830 revolution.
Eventually abdicates the throne during the revolution of 1848 in favor of his grandson (Feb. 24 1848).
Personal: Cousin of Charles X's and duke of Orleans.
- Accepted Constitutional Charter of 1814
- Adopted the red, white, and blue flag of the French revolution
-admitted he was merely the "king of the French people"
==> However under his reign, in reality very little was changed and the upper-middle class benefits the most from the renewed liberal constitution.
- Louis Philippe's new chief minister, Casimir Perier, bluntly told a deputy who complained of how little the voting pool had increased by "the trouble with this country is that there are too many people like you who imagine that there has been a revolution in France."
The Revolutions of 1848
In the 1848 Revolutionary political and social ideologies combined with severe economic crisis and the romantic impulse to produce a vast upheaval across Europe.
Context: 1840s Europe tense economically and politically: the potato famine in Ireland had affects across the continent. Bad harvests caused food prices and unemployment to rise.
"Pre-revolutionary" outbreaks were occurring all over: an abortive Polish revolution in N. Austria in 1846, a civil war b/w radicals and conservatives in Swiss in 1847, and an armed uprising in Naples 1848. However it wasn't until the French Revolution of 1848 that expectations turned into reality.
Revolutions follow generally follow a similar pattern:
-French revolution evokes excitement
- liberals demand written constitutions, representative government, and greater civil liberties from authoritarian regimes.
- Government hesitation leads to popular revolts
- Urban workers and students serve as the shock troops however they are allied with the middle-class liberals and peasants
- In the face of a united front the Monarch collapses and grants almost everything
- Popular revolutionary coalitions break apart
- Traditional forces reassert authority
-Only Great Britain and Russia remained untouched
-France, Austria, and Prussia
However ultimately all these revolutions failed.
French Revolution of 1848
-Louis Philippe's "bourgeois monarchy": lack of social legislation and inactive.
- Politics was dominated by corruption and selfish special interests.
- Government's refusal to consider electoral reform heightened a sense of class injustice among the middle class shopkeepers, skilled artisans, and unskilled working people
==> Eventually a popular revolt occur in Paris: February 22nd, 1848 the barricades go up.
February 24th, 1848 Louis Philippe abdicated in favor of his grandson ==> common people in arms will tolerate no more monarchy ==> Common people proclaim a provisional republic (Second republic) that is headed by a 10 men executive committee and certified by the cries of approval from the revolutionary crowd.
The work of historians and journalist who had carefully documented and praised the First French republic bore fruit ==> these new revolutionaries were committed to republic, wanted common people to be able to reform society with wise legislation and immediately began to draft a new constitution for France:
- Universal male suffrage
- Freed all the salves in the French colonies
- Abolition of the Death penalty
- establishment of the ten hour workday for Paris
However there were profound differences in the revolutionary coalition of Paris:
Liberal Republicans: Middle class + Peasants. View universal male suffrage as the ultimate concession made to the popular forces and thus were opposed to any more radical reform. Fear of workers, fear that propertied people will lose land and be taxed more.
Radical Republicans/Socialists: influenced by utopian socialists, and appalled by the poverty and misery of the urban poor, they were committed to some form of socialism. As were many artisans (advocate strong craft unions and worker-owned business)
Worsening depression and rising unemployment brought the conflicting goals of these two groups to the fore in 1848:
- Louis Blanc (see card) pressed for recognition of a socialist right to work. Asserted that permanent government-sponsored cooperative workshops should be established for workers. These workshops would be an alternative to capitalist employment and a decisive step toward a new, noncompetitive social order.
-Moderate Republicans only wanted to provide temporary relief.
==> Compromise: national workshops (pick-up-and-shovel public works established ) a special commission under Blanc was established to "study the problem". Unsatisfactory compromise. However they were better than nothing and an army of national and international poor streamed into Paris.
Late April the French masses went to the election polls: new Constituent Assembly w/ 500 moderate republicans, 300 monarchists, and 100 hundred radicals.
Socialist revolution frightens the middle/upper classes ad the peasants (bonded over their ownership of private property): the newly elected assembly is thus dedicated to a republic and strongly opposed to radicals
After the elections the clash of ideologies became a clash of arms:
- new government's executive committee drops Blanc and with him all representation of the Parisian working class.
- May 15 artisans and unskilled workers, driven by desperation, invaded the Constituent assembly and tried to proclaim a new revolutionary state.
- National Guard crushes the uprising. However workshops cont. to grow more radical.
- June 22 government dissolves the national workshops in Paris and gives the workers the choice of joining the army or going to workshops in the provinces.
==> Provokes a violent uprising, for the common people were no losing their life-sustaining relief. Barricades spring up and a terrible class war begins.
==> Army + peasants + upper/middle classes defeat the working class. After the three terrible "June Days' the republican army under General Louis Cavaignac stood victorious.
==> revolution is a failure.
-Instead of a democratic the republic, the Constituent Assembly completed a constitution feature a strong executive.
==> Louis Napoleon able to win a landslide victory in the election of 1848 and France comes under the rule of a semi-authoritarian regime (see card).
Alexis de Tocqueville
Name of the clash between the middle/upper class + peasants and the working class during the French revolution of 1848.
middle/upper class victorious under General Louis Cavaignac.
Personal: nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte
Because of constitution of a Constituent Assembly established a strong executive as head of state Louis Napoleon was able, after wining a landslide victory in the election of December 1848 (Because of the appeal of his name and the desire of the propertied classes to maintain order at all costs), produced a semi-authoritarian state.
Austrian Revolution of 1848
Instigating event: the nationalistic Hungarians demand national autonomy, full civil liberties and universal suffrage.
The monarchy in Vienna hesitates --> Viennese students and workers take to the streets in response and peasants disorder breaks out in various parts of the empire.
Habsburg Emperor Ferdinand I capitulates and promises reform + liberal constitution
Metternich flees to London.
Breakdown: However the revolutionary Coalition is not stable (Austria mostly agricultural and serfdom still existed):
- March 20 the monarchy (as part of its capitulation before the upheaval) abolished serfdom, its degrading forced labor, and feudal services. ==> the newly freed serfs lost interest in the political and social questions agitating the cities
-Urban coalition breaks down: Artisan and workers and urban rise up and present their own demands for socialist workshops and universal voting rights for men ==> middle class grows fearful
- conflicting national aspirations: Hungarian revolutionary leaders push through a very liberal constitution however they also wanted to transform the mosaic of provinces and peoples that was the kingdom of Hungary into a unified, centralized, Hungarian nation. minority groups (Croats, Serbs, and Romanians), who made up roughly half of the population, did not want this to happen for each group felt entitled to political autonomy and cultural independence. ==> Habsburg monarchy exploits the fear of these groups and these groups were soon fighting against the Hungarian government.
- Czech nationalists come into conflict with German nationalists in Prague
Restoration of the Habsburgs:
- Conservative aristocrats rally around Emperor Ferdinand
- Archduchess Sophia (married to the emperor's brother) provides a rallying point: Emperor Ferdinand, because of his shameful/weak response to the student protests, should abdicate in favor of her son Francis Joseph. ==> Powerful nobles w/ high positions in the gov./army/church agree with her. ==> Organize secret conspiracy
June 17 army crushes worker revolt in Prague.
Some Austrian officials + nobles lead the minority nationalities of Hungary against the revolutionary government.
October peasant troops of the regular Austrian army attack the working-class radicals in vienna and retook the city.
==> Defeat of the revolution: Francis Joseph was crowned emperor
However Hungary was not yet totally under control --> Nicholas I of Russia, a conservative, lends a hand and on June 6, 1849 he sends Russian troops into Hungary and subdues the country. ==> Ruled Hungary as a conquered territory
Successor: Francis Joseph
Emperor of Austria during the beginning of the Austrian revolution.
After the revolts he capitulated and promised reforms and a liberal constitution.
Initially, during the breakdown of the revolution, conservative aristocrats had gathered around him, however, under pressure from the archduchess Sophia, he abdicated in favor of her son (he had no heir and was shamed for his weak reaction during the beginning of the revolution) Francis Joseph.
Lived during the Austrian revolution of 1848.
Personal: Bavarian princess who was married to the emperor's brother. Conservative.
Provided a rallying point during the revolution of 1848 for conservatives: Shaming Ferdinand I for his actions during the early age of the revolution, she insisted that Ferdinand, who had no heir, abdicate in favor of her son, Francis Joseph.
Many nobles who held high positions in gov./army/and the church agreed and around Sophia they organized a secret conspiracy to crush the revolution.
Successor of: Ferdinand I (nephew), Ferdinand I abdicated in favor of his under pressure from Francis's mother, the Archduchess Sophia.
Reigned after the Austrian Revolution of 1848.
Nicholas I of Russia
Aided Francis Joseph in bringing Hungary back under Austrian control: On June 6, 1849 he sent 130,000 Russian troops into Hungary and subdued the country.
Prussia and the Frankfurt Assembly (The Prussian revolution of 1848)
Historical context: Prussia the largest and most influential German kingdom after Austria. Prior to 1848 the goal of middle-class Prussian liberals had been to transform absolutist Prussia into a liberal constitutional monarchy that would lead the 38 states of the German Confederation into a liberal, unified nation that was desired by liberals through out Europe.
Instigating event: French revolution of 1848 encourages Prussian liberals to press heir demands.
-In March Artisans and factory workers revolt in Berlin and they formed a temporary alliance with the middle-class liberals
The monarch, Frederick William IV (r. 1840-1861) gave up:
-March 21 promised to grant Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created
-Workers want more and Aristocrats want less form the new liberal constitution
-Workers issues a series of democratic and vaguely socialist demands
- Middle-class allies are troubles and conservative cliques gather around the king to urge a counter-revolution
As an elected Prussian Constituent Assembly met in Berlin to write a constitution for the Prussian state a self appointed group of liberals from various German states successfully called for a national assembly to begin writing a federal constitution for a unified German state.
However soon the Frankfurt assembly was absorbed in a battle with Denmark over the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein:
- the provinces were inhabited primarily by Germans but were ruled by the King of Denmark, although Holstein was a member of the German Confederation.
- Frederick VII, the new nationalistic king, tried to integrate both provinces into the rest of his state, and the Germans in these provinces revolted.
==> National Assembly debates the issues and then calls on the Prussian army to oppose Denmark in the name of the German Nation ==> Prussia obliges
March 1849 the National Assembly completes its draft of a liberal constitution and elected King Frederick William of Prussia emperor of the new German national state (minus Austria and Schleswig-Holstein).
However by early 1849 the counter-revolution had been successful almost everywhere: Frederick William has reasserted his royal authority, disbanded the Prussian Constituent Assembly, and granted his subjected a conservative constitution. Reasserted his divine right to rule.
==> Revolution crushed b/c had waited too long and allowed themselves to be distracted by nationalist issues
Frederick William attempts to get the small monarchs of Germany to elect him emperor (only wanted to be emperor on his terms), Austria and Russia force Prussia to renounce all its schemes of unification in late 1850, and Prussia complied and the German Confederation was reestablished.
Frederick William VI
Ruled during the Prussian revolution.
Beginning of the revolution: Complied to the demands of liberals
-March 21 grants Prussia a liberal constitution and to merge Prussia into a new national German state that was to be created
Counter-revolution: Conservatives, middle-class allies of the poor who were alienated by their increasingly democratic/socialist demands, rally behind the king and urge a counter-revolution.
End of the revolution: Was elected emperor of the new German national state in 1849. However he his counter-revolution plan was already in full affect --reasserted royal authority, disbanded the Prussian constituent Assembly, and granted a limited constitution. Reasserts divine right to rule.
Attempted to be elected Emperor by the smaller German nations (wanted to be emperor on his own terms, and not take the crown the National assembly had given him) however he is forced to abandon his efforts of unification by Austria and Russia and the German confederation was reestablished.
Prussian Constituent Assembly
Elected during the Prussian revolution.
Met in Berlin to write a constitution for a Prussian State.
Was disbanded by Frederick William IV.
Active during the Prussian revolution.
Self-appointed committee of liberals from various German estates who successfully called for a national assembly to begin the process of writing a federal constitution for a unified German state.
Met in Frankfurt in May.
A revolutionary body composed of middle-class lawyers, professors, doctors, officials and businessmen.
Distracted by the war with the Danish.
March 1849 completed a its first draft of a liberal constitution and elected Frederick William of Prussia the new emperor of the new German national state (minus Austria and Schleswig-Holstein).
Frederick VII and the Denmark revolt
The provinces of Schelwsig and Holestein were primarily dominated by Germans, however they were ruled by the king of Denmark, even though Holestein was a member of the German confederation.
When Frederick VII, the new nationalistic king of Denmark, tried to integrate both these provinces into the rest of his state, the Germans in these provinces revolted.
Denmark enters war with Prussia over these provinces.