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23 terms

7th grade science CH 5

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alleles
the different forms a gene may have for a trait
genotype
the genetic make-up of an organism
incomplete dominance
when both alleles are expressed in offspring, when neither allele for a trait is dominant
polygenic inheritance
occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce a single trait, which creates more variety in phenotypes
dominant
when a trait covers up or dominates the other traits
heredity
the passing of traits from one generation to another
multiple alleles
when there are more than two alleles possible for a trait
gene therapy
when a normal allele is placed into a virus, which delivers the normal allele when it infects its target cell, may be used to control genetic disorders, like cystic fibrosis
genetic engineering
how scientists are experimenting to change the arrangement of DNA that makes up a gene
heterozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a trait
pedigree
shows patterns of genetic inheritance in a family
recessive
in a Punnett square, a small letter(t) stands for this kind of allele, the trait seems to disappear
recombinant DNA
made by inserting a useful segment of DNA from one organism into a bacterium, ex. human insulin
homozygous
an organism with two alleles that are exactly the same
phenotype
the way an organism looks and behaves as a result of its geneotype
sex-linked gene
an allele inherited on an X or Y chromosome, such as hemophilia or color-blindness
recessive genetic disorders
when both parents have a recessive allele responsible for the disorder and pass it to their child
homo
(same) an organism whose two genotype alleles are exactly the same
hetero
(different) an organism with two different alleles for a trait
poly
(many) a type of inheritance where more than one set of genes controls a trait
Gregor Mendel
the father of genetics, first to use mathematics to explain heredity and to trace one trait for generations
hybrid
receives different genetic information for a trait from each parent
probability
helps predict the chance that something will happen