24 terms

AP Environmental Science Chapter 9

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aquifer
small spaces found within permeable layers of rock/sediment where water is stored
unconfined aquifers
where water can easily flow in and out
confined aquifers
surrounded by impermeable rock or clay that prevents water flow
water table
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates the rock or soil
groundwater recharge
input of water through soil to aquifers through precipitation
springs
Water from some aquifers naturally percolates up to the ground surface, where they serve freshwater biomes and drinkable water
artesian wells
Drilling a hole into a confined aquifer releases the pressure on the water, allowing it to burst out of the aquifer and rise up in the well
saltwater intrustion
As humans drill thousands of wells along coastlines, pressure is reduced and adjacent salt water can infiltrate the area, making the water in the wells salty
surface water
fresh water that exists above the ground, including streams, rivers, ponds, lakes, and wetlands
floodplain
excess water from riverbank overflow spreads on nearby land
ogliotrophic lakes
Lakes that have low productivity due to low amounts of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen in the wate
mesotrophic lakes
lakes with a moderate level of productivity
eutrophic lakes
lakes iwth high level of productivity
impermeable surfaces
pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration
levee
an enlarged bank built up on each side of the river to prevent floods
dikes
prevent to stop ocean waters from flooding land
dam
a barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water
reservoir
Water is stored behind the dam in a large body of water
fish ladders
built like a set of stairs with water flowing over them, migrating fish can swim up the and reach their traditional breeding grounds
Aqueducts
canals or ditches used to carry water from one location to another
desalination
making fresh water by removing salt
reverse osmosis
water is forced through a thin semipermeable membrane at high pressure
hydroponic agriculture
the cultivation of crop plants under greenhouse conditions with their roots immersed in a nutrient-rich solution, but no soil
cone of depression
Lowering of the water table around a pumping well