Chapter 2 AP Psychology
Terms in this set (64)
Explain science's main assumption and describe the goals of the scientific enterprise in psychology.
Assume that there are laws of behavior that can be discovered
Goals are: the measurement and description, the understanding and prediction, and the application of knowledge
Explain the relations between theory, hypotheses, and research.
Theories permit psychologists to make the leap from the description of a behavior to the understanding of behavior. Confidence in a theory increases when hypotheses derived from it are supported by research
Outline the steps in a scientific investigation.
1. Formulate a testable hypothesis
2.select a research method and design the study
3. collect the data
4. analyze the data and draw conclusions
5.report the findings
Discuss the advantages of the scientific approach.
clarity in communication, promoted by use of operational definitions
relative intolerance of error, which is promoted by scientist's constant testing
Describe the experimental method, explaining independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and extraneous variables.
Experimental research involves the manipulation of an independent variable, usually done by comparing experimental and control groups.
Explain the major advantages and disadvantages of the experimental method.
Permits conclusions about cause and effect
sometimes unethical and cannot be researched
manipulation of variable can be difficult
Discuss three descriptive/correlational research methods: naturalistic observation, case studies, and surveys.
Naturalistic observation is when the researcher does not intervene with the subject
Case Study is an in depth investigation of an individual subject
Survey is a questionnaire or interview used to gather information about specific aspects of a participant
Evaluate the major advantages and disadvantages of descriptive/correlational research.
Descriptive/ correlational methods only permit investigators to describe patterns o behavior and discover links or associations between variables
Describe three measures of central tendency and one measure of variability.
The mean, median, and mode are the widely used measures of central tendency. The mean tends to be the most useful of these indexes but it can be distorted by extreme scores. Variability is usually measure with the standard deviation, which increases the variability in a data set grows.
Distinguish between positive and negative correlations.
Correlations may be either positive or negative. The closer a correlation is to either +1 or -1, the stronger the association is.
Discuss correlation in relation to prediction and causation.
As a correlations increases in strength, the ability to predict one variable based on knowledge of the other variable increases.
Explain the meaning of statistical significance.
Hypothesis testing involves deciding whether observed findings support the researchers hypothesis. Findings are statistically significant only when they are extremely unlikely to be due to chance
Explain what makes a sample representative, and discuss the problem of sampling bias
Sampling bias is when a sample is not representative of the population
Explain when placebo effects are likely to be a problem.
Placebo effect happens when a participant feels something fake because of their expectations
Describe the typical kinds of distortions that occur in self-report data.
Social desirability or when subjects five socially acceptable answers, Response set is a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of the questions
Describe Rosenthal's research on experimenter bias.
his research suggests that experimenter bias may lead researchers to unintentionally influence the behavior of their subjects
Discuss the pros and cons of deception in research with human subjects.
Could be morally wrong but shows researchers things that would not be possible if the subject knew
Discuss the controversy about the use of animals as research subjects.
Critics argue that it violates animal's rights and that the findings of animal studies may not generalize to humans. Those who defend it argue that it has brought major advances that are worth the costs
Summarize the major ethical principles governing psychological research
The APA has formulated ethical principles to serves as guidelines for researcher.
Explain how this chapter highlighted two of the text's unifying themes.
The empirical nature of psychology was elucidated throughout this chapter. Empiricism involves testing hypotheses, basing conclusions on systematic observation, and taking a skeptical approach.
personal stories about specific incidents and experiences
An in depth investigation of an individual subject
Confounding of variables
A condition that exists whenever two variables are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their independent effects
Subjects in a study who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group
the extent to which two variables are related to each other
a numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables.
Data collection techniques
procedures for making empirical observations and measurements
in an experiment, the variable that is thought to be affected by the manipulation of the independent variable
statics that are used used to organize and summarize data
a research strategy in which neither subjects nor experimenters know which which subjects are in the experimental or control groups
a research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result
The subjects in a study who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
A phenomenon that occurs when a researchers expectation or preferences about the outcome of ta study influence the results obtained
any variables other than the independent variable that seem likely to influence the dependent variable in a specific study
a distortion that occurs on questionnaires when ones overall evaluation of a person object or institution spills over to influence more specific ratings
a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables
in an experiment, a condition or event that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable
statistics that are used to interpret data and draw conclusions
a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material, usually in a narrowly defined area of inquiry
the arithmetic average of the scores in a distribution
the score that falls exactly in the center of a distribution of scores
a research technique that combines the statistical results of many studies of the same questions, yielding an estimate of the size and consistency of a variables effects
the score that occurs most frequently in a distribution
a descriptive research method in which the researcher engages in careful, usually prolonged, observation of behavior without intervening directly with the subjects
a definition that describes the actions or operations that will be made to measure or control a variable
the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study
the fact that subjects' expectations can lead them to experience some change even though they receive an empty, fake, or ineffectual treatment
the larger collection of animals or people from which a sample is drawn and that researchers want to generalize about
the constitution of groups in a study such that all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition
alteration of a subjects behavior as a result of the presence of an observer
the repetition of a study to see whether the earlier results are duplicated
differing approaches to the manipulation and control of variables in empirical studies
a tendency to respond to questions in a particular way that is unrelated to the content of he questions.
the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
a problem that occurs when a sample is not representative of the population from which it is drawn
Social desirability bias
a tendency to give socially approved answers to questions about ones self
an index of the amount of variability in a set of data
the condition that exists when the probability that the observed findings are due to chance is very low
the use of mathematics to organize, summarize, and interpret numerical data.
same as participants
a descriptive research method in which researchers use questionnaires or interviews to gather information about specific aspects of subject's behavior
a system of interrelated ideas that is used to explain a set of observations
the extent to which the scores in a data set tend to vary from each other and from the mean
any measurable conditions, events, characteristics, or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a study