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22 terms

Honors Biology Chapter 6

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sun
the original source of energy on earth
photo
light
synthesis
to make something
autotrophs
organisms that make all their own organic matter
heterotrophs
organisms that cannot make organic molecules from inorganic ones
cellular respiration
the aerobic harvesting of chemical energy from organic fuel molecules
aerobic
presence of molecular oxygen
anaerobic
lacks presence of molecular oxygen
redox reaction
transfer of electrons and hydrogens from one substance to another
reduction
oxygen gains electrons and hydrogens
oxidation
glucose loses electrons and hydrogens
kreb's cycle
completes the breakdown of sugar all the way to carbon dioxide
glycolosis
a molecule of glucose is split into two molecules of a compound called pyruvic acid, net gain of two ATP, NADH produced for ETC
metabolism
the general term for all the chemical processes that occur in cells
ATP synthase
the turbine-like structures in mitochondrial membrane that are powered by electron transport
electron transport chain
a series of electron carrier molecules that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
aerobic respiration equation
C6H12O6+6CO2 _enzymes+ATP_6CO2+6H2O+38 ATP and heat
faculative anaerobe
an organism with the metabolic versatility to harvest food energy by either cellular respiration or fermentation
obligate anaerobe
an organism that is poisoned by oxygen
obligate aerobe
an organism that depends on oxygen and cellular respiration to stay alive
fermentation
the anaerobic harvest of food energy
lactic acid fermentation
the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide