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decrease in joint angle


increase in joint angle


away from midline of the body


toward the midline of the body

Transverse abduction (horizontal flexion)

horizontal movement away from midline

transverse adduction (horizontal extension)

horizontal movement towards midline

external rotation (outward rotation)

rotating axis of bone away from body. lateral rotation

Internal rotation (inward rotation)

rotating axis of bone towards the body. medial rotation


turn sole of foot outwards. walking on inside of foot.


turn sole of foot inwards. walking on outside of foot.


top of foot towards shin


top of foot away from shin. toe rise


turning palm upwards. hold a bowl of soup. only allowed at radioulna joint.


turning pal downwards. only allowed at radioulna joint.


proximal end of limb remains stationary, distal end moves in circular pattern.

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