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4-Reversible and Irreversible cell injury

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reversible
alteration of homeostasis, remove problem, cell returns to normal
irreversible
alteration of homeostasis to "point of no return" = cell death, necrosis, removal of stimuli: still no return to normal
2 main types of reversible
swelling/hydropic degeneration
fatty change
fatty change - definition
early stage: sub-lethal damage, intracytoplasmic vaculoation bc of vacuoles of fat
fatty change pathogenesis
impaired metabolism of fatty acids thus build up of triglycerides, thus intracytoplasmic fat vacuoles
stages of fatty change
1. lipids into hepatocytes as FFA
2. FFA turned into: cholesterol, phopholipids, ketones, triglycerides
3. Triglycerides + apoproteins to make lipoproteins
4. Lipoproteins: only form triglycerides can leave hepatocytes
abnormalities in any of this causes fatty change
decreased beta-oxidation of fatty acids to ketones because of _____ injury
mitochondrial
impaired synthesis of apoproteins
starvation, CCl4 toxicity, aflatoxicosis
impaired combination of triglycerides and proteins to form
lipoprotein
problem secreting lipoproteins from hepatocyte
build up of fat
3 main etiologies of fatty change
hypoxia
toxicity
metabolic disorders
which cells do you mainly find fatty change
cells dependant on fat metabolism (hepatocytes)
renal tubular epithelium
myocardium
fatty change is seen with abnormalities of 3 things
synthesis
utilization
mobilization
what sometimes comes with fatty change
swelling
gross appearance of fatty change
liver diffusely yellow, or reticular pattern if only a zone is affected
cut section of fatty change
bulge
rounded edges
describe fatty change tissue
soft
friable
cuts easy
greasy texture
what happens when you put fatty liver in water
float
where is the nucleus in a fatty cell
periphery
how do you tell diff between swollen cell, fat cell, glycogen cell
stain
whats stains detect fat
oil red O
Sudan III
5 necrosis
coagulation
liquefactive
caeous
fat
gangrene
coagulation definition
death by preservation of tissue architecture and cellular outline
which is the most common necrosis
coagulation
hypoxic/ischemic death of all cells except brain is
coagulation
necrosis where outline of cell persists for a few days
coagulation
gross of coagulative
architecture of necrotic looks like normal, except for color and texture could be diff
ligher (pale)
swollen/shrunken
area could be surrounded by inflammation
microscopic change in coagulative of cytoplasm
inc eosinophilia (light pink) (loss of ribosomes)
hyalinized (glassy) apperance bc loss of glycogen
three types of nuclear changes
pyknosis
karyorrhexis
karyolysis
pyknosis
shurnken
dense basophilic (blue)
irregular
karyorrhexis
nuclear membrane ruptures
nucleus fragmented
karyolysis
complete dissolution
fading/loss of chromatin
etiology of coagulative
bacterial toxins
viral replication
infarction