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Chapter 34 - acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease
Terms in this set (37)
A condition in which the kidneys fail to remove metabolic end products from the blood and regulate the fluid, electrolyte, and pH balance is...
What are three underlying causes of renal failure?
renal disease, systemic disease, urologic defects of nonrenal origin
Acute renal failure is _____ in onset
Is acute renal failure reversible?
yes, if recognized early and treated appropriately
What is chronic renal failure?
the end rsult of irreparable damage to the kidneys
How does chronic renal failure develop?
What is the difference between acute and chronic renail failure?
What are the two most common indicatoes of acute renal failure?
azotemia and decrease in GFR
What is azotemia?
build up of nitrogenous wastes
What are the three categories of acute renal failure?
intrinsic, prerenal, and postrenal
What does intrinsic renal failure occur from?
damage to structures with the kidney
What are causes of intrinsic failure?
inflammation, toxins, drugs, infection, or reduced blood supply
What characterizes prerenal renal failure?
decrease in renal blood flow
What are causes of prerenal renal failure?
severe injury or illness
What does postrenal renal failure occur from?
obstruction of urine outflow from the kidneys
What are causes of postrenal renal failure?
enlarged prostate, kidney stones, bladder tumor, or injury
What types of renal failure account for 80-95% of acute renal failure?
intrinsic and prerenal
What is the most common form of acute renal failure?
How much blood flow needs to be lost for damage to occur?
Where does postrenal renal failure occur?
in the ureter, bladder, or urethra
What is the most common cause of postrenal failure?
What is the most common cause of intrinsic acute renal failure?
acute tubular necrosis
What is ATN?
destruction of tubular epithelial cells with acute supression of renal function
What are causes of ATN?
renal ischemia, exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, metals, organic slvents, intratubular onstruction, and acute renal disease
What are the three phases of ATN?
onset/initiating phase, maintenance phase, and recovery phase
How long does the onset phase last?
hours or days
The time from the onset of precipitating event until tubular injury occurs is the..
What is the maintenance phase characterized by?
a marked decrease in the GFR
What is the recovery phase?
period during which repair of renal tissues takes place
When is urine output at its lowest?
in the maintance phase
Who are the people at risk for acute renal failure?
those with preexisting renal insufficiency and diabetes and elderly persons
How many people in Canada have chronic renal failure?
How many require a form of dialysis?
Chronic renal disease represents the progressive decline in kidney function due to what?
permanent loss of nephrons
How is chronic renal disease classifed?
by using GFR
What are the two greatest risk factors for Chronic renal disease?
hypertension and diabetes
What happens when kidney is destroyed?
remaining nephrons undergo hypertrophy
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