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21 terms

Chapter 2 Neuron & Nervous System

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Biological Psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
Neuron
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical & chemical form; a nerve cell
Sensory Neuron
Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized recialzied receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs
Motor Neurons
Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract
Interneuron
Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next
Cell Body
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function
Dendrites
short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages
Axon
long nerve fiber that conducts away from the cell body of the neuron
Myelin Sheath
covers the axon of some neurons and helps speed neural impulses
Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon
Synaptic Gap
space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the receptors of the next neuron
Axon Terminals
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
Synaptic Vesicles
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
Neurotransmitters
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
Nervous System
Primary internal communication network of the body divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system
Central Nervous System
consists of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System
the section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
Sympatheic Nervous System
Branch of autonomic nervous system the produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats
Parasympathetic Nervous System
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Autonomic Nervous System
division of the nervous system that control the glands and organs; its divisions arouse or calm
Hormones
chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands