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Explain the growth in cremation between World War II and 1963
The cremation rate had stagnated at 3.7 percent
What trends seemed to work against the rising use of cremation after World War II
A booming postwar economy and affluent society that preferred garish and expensive to simplicity and economy
Who were the three individuals that reversed the declining cremation trend in 1963
Pope Paul VI, Jessica Mitford, and Lee Harvey Oswald
Explain the impact the aggiornamento during the Second Vatican Council had on cremation
The aggiornamento or updating transformed Vatican disapproval of cremation to toleration
What was the name of Jessica Mitford's book and how did it describe funeral service and indirectly affect cremation
"The American Way of Death described funeral service as a useless, recent invention of greedy traders who sought to sell expensive merchandise to families. Smart consumers would opt for cheaper and simpler death rites like cremation "
According to Prothero what were the two complaints about American funeral service identified in Mitford's book
Economics : funeral directors were sleezy salesmen fattening their wallets by ripping off unsuspecting relatives of the corpse; Aesthetics: what funeral directors sold was tasteless and fake
What federal agency inadvertently helped cremation by scruitinizing funeral director practices
How did the NFDA's and the American Cemetery Association's reaction to Mitford and the FTC affect public sentiment toward funeral directors
By fighting back and defending their livelihoods instead of admitting to an error or two, funeral directors fattened Mitford's royalty checks and further swayed public opinion against funeral directors
In the 1950s and 1960s how did pro-funeral industry publications like American Cemetery and American Funeral Director label critics of funeral service like Jessica Mitford
As communists seeking to bring down church and state
Who was Roger Waltrip and what role did he play in the debate between consumer advocates like Mitford and defenders of traditional funerals.
"Roger Waltrip was the chairman of Service Corporation International (SCI) who advocated the social, psychological and religious value of traditional funerals "
According to Prothero why did the FTC's 1978 regulations amount to little more than disclosure requirements
Because of the NFDA and death care's strong lobby which urged Congress to block the FTC from implementing any reforms
In the two decades that followed the publication of The American Way of Death how did the funeral industry deal with cremation
Aside from the occassonal article about cremation in trade journals, the funeral industry ignored the practice and concentrated on the evil triumvirate of Mitford, memorial societies, and the FTC
How did cremation entrepreneurs view the average cost of funerals
They viewed it as an opportunity rather than a scourge
How did many profit making cremation businesses capitlaize on the popularity of non-profit funeral and memorial societies during the cremation boom
By masquerading as cooperatives
Name two of the most successful for-profit cremation businesses that masqueraded as cooperatives during the cremation boom
Neptune Society and Telophase
Explain how the new independent cremation businesses of the cremation boom threatened funeral directors cemetarians, monument makers, and flourists
By offering no frills cremations without funeral plots, markers or bouquets
Who pioneered the Telophase Society and pioneered direct cremation for profit
Biochemist Thomas B. Weber
What was the significance of the amount the Telophase Society charged for cremation
The amount, $250, was roughly equivalent to the Social Security Death Benefit
Who was the CEO of the Neptune Society and when was it established
Chiropractor Charles Denning, 1977
What distinguised the Telophase Society from the Neptune Society
Whereas the Telophase Society only offered discount, no frills, direct cremation, the Neptune Society offered a complete cremation menu rather than one, cut-rate course
How did funeral directors and other death care providers react to the success of direct cremation
By disparaging firms like Telophase and Neptune as bake and shake, burn and scatter, disposal services, and trying to legislate them out of business
How did the funeral industry's response to Mitford the FTC, and the new cremation entrepreneurs mirror the critics' responses to cremation in the Guilded Age
Funeral directors denounced cremation as secularization and its supporters as secularists, godless, communists, aetheists, and pagans
"In the 1960s and 1970s as in the 1880s and 1890s, how were the critics of cremation wrong
The cremation movement fostered not secularization, but diversification of religion and ritualization
According to Prothero what does the influence of Mitford, the FTC, and the memorial society movement suggest was the primary reason for the post-1963 cremation boom
Besides economic considerations what was another reason for the post-1963 cremation boom
The rise of environmentalism
"Economic cosiderations and environmentalism played important roles in the post-1963 cremation boom
but what aspect of cremation had the greatest impact on its growing
How was President Kennedy's funeral a nod to the emerging funerary style of the 1960s
Although Kennedy's funeral was extremely elaborate, his closed casket signaled a shift toward simplicity that would transcend multiple facets of American culture, including funerals, afterwards
What aspects of President Eisenhower's funeral in 1969 support Prothero's claim that Americans sought simpler Mitfordian style funerals
Eisenhower chose to be buried at the modest Chapel of Meditation in Abilene, Kansas, rather than at Arlington National Cemetery, he selected a simple, $80 G.I.-style casket, his service was brief, and his family requested charitable donations be sent in lieu of flowers
"What charges made by funeral directors against Mitford during their three-front battle against her
the memorial societies, and the FTC, bare some truth","Mitford was an ethnocentrist pushing ""a white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant view of funeral ritual with no regard for ethnic, racial, or religous considerations"" and she was a closet aristocrat who viewed herself as more knowledgable than common folks "
Cremation in the 1960s and beyond was a modern revival of what two movements that historian John Higham argues Americans have wrestled with for centuries
Purity and progressive era moralism
What were the counterpoints to embalming and burial that emerged after 1963
Cremation and memorial service
What did the countercultural cremations that emerged after 1963 express in their death rites
The unique personality and living spirit of the deceased
List five terms that describe cremation according to Countercultural Cremationists
"Simplicity, ""small is beautiful"", natural, authentic, reality, individuality, informal, innovation, beautiful, customized, counterculture, hip... "
What served as a metaphor to the purity of John Lennon's departing spirit at the gathering in Manhattan Central Park
An ascending bouquet of white balloons
"How did John Lennon's wife
singer Yoko Ono, show she had been influenced by consumer critques of burial and counter-cultural commitments of Mitford and memorial societies?","In lieu of flowers, she asked for donations to the Spirit Foundation, and she wanted no public funeral "
Why did Ono ultimately announce a memorial service for John Lennon
Because of the overwhelming public outpouring of grief and affection
What was unique about the location of John Lennnon's memorial ceremony
It was to take place anywhere and everywhere
"According to Prothero
what did Ono's ""no public funeral"" pronouncement do and how did cremation function in the worldwide process of memorializing John Lennon","Both served to direct attention from Lennon's bullet-ridden body to his spirit. A body must be somewhere, but a spirit can be anywhere "
What important turn in American relion and culture does Lennon's cremation highlight
The ongoing pluralization of U.S. religion and rituralization
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