Milady Cosmetology Chapter 6 Cells and Bones

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Terms in this set (...)

Anatomy
the study of the human body structures that can be seen with the naked eye and how the body parts are organized. It is the science of the structure of organisms or of their parts.
Physiology
study of the functions and activities performed by the body's structure
Ology
means study of
Histology
AKA microscopic anatomy; study of tiny structures found in living tissues
Cells
Basic units of all living things, from bacteria to plants to animals, including humans. Life does not exist without them. Responsible for carrying on all life processes. Trillions of them;vary in shape, size and purpose
Protoplasm
colorless jelly-like substances found inside cells in which food elements such as proteins, fats, carbs, mineral salts, and water are present
Nucleus
the dense, active protoplasm found in the center of the cell. Important in cell reproduction and metabolism
Cytoplasm
the protoplasm of the cell, except for the protoplasm in the nucleus, that surrounds the nucleus. watery fluid that needs for growth, reproduction, and self-repair
Cell Membrane
The cell part that encloses the protoplasm and permits soluble substances to enter and leave the cell
Mitosis
the usual process of cell reproduction of human tissues that occurs when the cell divides into two identical cells called daughter cells
Centrioles
Two small structures near the nucleus. move to each side during the mitosis process to help divide the cell
Metabolism
chemical process that takes place in living organisms, through which the cells are nourished and carry out their activities. Has two phases
Anabolism
Constructive metabolism, the process of building up later molecules from smaller ones. During this process the body stores water, food, and oxygen for the times when these substances will be needed for cell growth, reproduction or repair
Catabolism
the phase of metabolism that involves the breaking down of complex compounds within the cells into smaller ones. Releases energy that has been stored
Tissue
a collection of similar cells that perform a particular function. Each kind has a specific function. Composed of large amount of water
Connective Tissue
Fibrous tissue that binds together, protects, and supports the various parts of the body. Examples are bone, cartilage, ligaments, tendons, blood, lymph, and adipose
Epithelial Tissue
A protective covering on body surfaces, such as skin, mucous membranes, the tissue inside the mouth, the lining of the heart, digestive and respiratory organs and glands
Muscle Tissue
Contracts and moves various parts of the body
Nerve Tissue
carried messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all bodily functions. Composed of special cells called neurons
Neurons
Make up the nerves, brain, and spinal cord
Organs
structures of specialized tissues designed to perform specific functions in plants and animals
Body Systems
AKA systems; groups of body organs acting together to perform one or more function
Brain eyes heart kidneys lungs liver skin stomach intestines
Nine major body organs
Muscular Respiratory Skeletal Lymphatic Circulatory Reproductive Endocrine Integumentary Digestive Excretory Nervous
Eleven Main Body systems
Skeletal System
forms the physical foundation of the body and is composed of 206 bones that vary in size and shape and are connected by moveable and immoveable joints
Osteology
the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of the bones
Os
means bones
Primary functions of the skeletal system
Give shape and support to body
protect various internal structures and organs
Serve as attachments for muscles
acts as levers for body movement
help produce both white and red blood cells
stores more of the body's calcium supply
Joint
the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton. Two types: moveable and immoveable
SKull
skeleton of the head and is divided into two parts; cranium and facial skeleton
Cranium
an oval, bony case that protects the brain
Facial Skeleton
The framework of the face that is composed of 14 bones
Occipital Bone
Hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bones; forms the back of the skull above the nape
Parietal Bones
Bones that form the sides and top of the cranium. Two of them
Frontal Bones
Bone that forms the forehead
Temporal Bones
Bones that form the sides of the head in the area region. Two of them
Ethmoid Bone
Light spongy bone between the eye sockets, forms part of the nasal cavities
Sphenoid Bone
Bone that joins all of the bones of the cranium together
Nasal Bones
Bones that form the bridge of the noes. Two of them
Lacrimal Bones
Small, thin bones located at the from inner wall of the orbits. Two of them
Zygomatic Bones
AKA malar bones, cheekbones; form the prominence of the cheeks. Two of them
Maxillae
Bones of the upper jaw. Two of them
Mandible
Lower jawbone, largest and strongest bone of the face
Hyoid Bone
U-shaped bone at the base of the tongue that supports the tongue and its muscles
Cervical Vertebrae
Seven bones of the top part of the vertebral column, located in the neck region
Thorax
AKA chest or pulmonary trunk; consists of sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae. Elastic bony cage that serves as a protective framework for the heart, lungs..
Ribs
Twelve pairs of bones forming the wall of the thorax
Scapula
AKA shoulder blade. Large flat triangular bone of the shoulder. Two
Sternum
AKA breastbone; flat done that forms the central support of the ribs
Clavicle
AKA collarbone; bone that joins the sternum and scapula
Humerus
Uppermost and largest bone in the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder
Ulna
Inner and larger bone in the forearm attached to the wrist and located on the side of the little finger
Radius
smaller bone in the forearm on the same side as the thumb
Carpus
AKA wrist. Flexible joint composed of a group of eight small, irregular bones held together by ligaments
Metacarpus
Bones of the palm of the hand; parts of the hand containing five bones between the carpus and phalanges
Phalanges
aka digits; bones of the fingers and toes
Femur
Heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee
TIbia
larger of the two bones that form the leg below the knee. Visualized as a bump in the big toe side of the ankle
Fibula
smaller of the two bones that form the left below the knee. visualized as a bump on the little-toe side of the ankle
Patella
AKA accessory bone, kneecap; forms the kneecap joint
Talus
AKA ankle bone; third bone of the ankle joint
Tarsal Bones
seven bones- talus, calcaneus, navicular, cuneiform, cuboid
Metatarsal Bones
Long and slender bones, similar to the metacarpal bones of the hand