Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 6 Book/PowerPoint
Overview of Cell Biology
Terms in this set (109)
What is biology?
A science that explores living things and life processes
What are cells?
Basic units of all living matter
Essential for life
Fundamental components of structure, development, growth, and life processes in the human body
What are the diverse functions of cells in the body?
Conduction of nerve impulses
Contraction of muscles
Support of various organs
Transportation of body fluids, such as blood
What are the predetermined tasks cells perform in support of the body?
Regulate life processes
What are the requirements of the body to ensure efficient cell operation?
Provide food as a source of raw material for the release of energy
Supply oxygen to help break down the food
Have enough water to transport inorganic substances into and out of the cell
What is the benefit of proper cell function?
it enables the body to maintain homeostasis or equilibrium
What happens when ionizing radiation damages the components involved in molecular synthesis beyond repair?
Cells either behave abnormally or die
What is the cells chemical composition?
What is the chemical building material for all living things?
What complex process does protoplasm carry?
Metabolism, the reception and processing of food and oxygen, and the elimination of waste products
What does protoplasm consist of?
Organic compounds and inorganic materials either dissolved or suspended in water formed from some elements, with the four primary elements involved being carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What are the most important inorganic substances?
water and mineral salts (electrolytes)
What are the major classes of organic compounds that compose the cell?
What is the basic constituent of all organic matter?
Life is made possible when carbon combines with:
What contains the most carbon of all the organic compounds?
Proteins constitute approx. ________ of cell content
Proteins are essential for:
Growth, the construction of new body tissue, and the repair of injured or debilitated tissue
How are proteins formed?
When amino acids combine into long, chainlike molecular complexes
Protein production or protein synthesis involves ___________ different amino acids
What does the order of arrangement of amino acids determine?
The precise function of each protein molecule
What does the type of protein macromolecule that any cell contains determine?
The characteristic of that cell
What is the function of enzymatic proteins (enzymes)?
As organic catalysts
What do enzymes control?
the cell's various physiologic activities
What do enzymes cause an increase in?
Cellular activity that in turn causes biochemical reactions to occur more rapidly to meet the needs of the cell
What do structural proteins provide?
The body with its shape and form and a source of heat and energy for the body
What are repair enzymes?
they can mend damaged molecules and are therefore capable of helping the cell to recover from a small amount of radiation-induced damage
What is vital to the survival of cells and works effectively in both the diagnostic and therapeutic energy ranges?
What are antibodies?
protein molecules produced by specialized cells in the bone marrow called B lymphocytes
When are antibodies produced?
When other lymphocytes in the body (T lymphocytes) detect the presence of molecules that do not belong to the body
What do antibodies do?
chemically attack any foreign invaders or antigens
What are hormones?
Chemical secretions manufactured by various endocrine glands and carried by the bloodstream to influence the activities of other parts of the body
What do hormones do?
Regulate body functions such as growth and development
Carbohydrates make up approx _______ of the cell content
What do carbohydrates include?
Starches and various sugars that range from simple to complex
Carbohydrates function as:
Short-term energy warehouses for the body
What is the primary purpose of carbohydrates?
To provide fuel for cell metabolism
Where are carbohydrate most abundant?
In the liver and in muscle tissue
Carbohydrates are important structural parts of cell:
Walls and intercellular materials
Lipids constitute approx _______ of cell content
What are lipids made up of?
A molecule of glycerin and three molecules of fatty acid
Lipids are _____________ macromolecules
The structural parts of cell membranes
Present in all body tissue
Perform various functions for the body
What are the functions that lipids perform for the body?
Act as reservoirs for the long-term storage of energy
Insulate and guard the body against the environment
Support and protect organs such as the eyes and kidneys
Provide essential substances necessary for growth and development
Lubricate the joints
Assist in the digestive process
Nucleic acids comprise approx ____________ of the cell
What are nucleic acids?
Very large, complex macromolecules that are made up by nucleotides
What are two types of nucleic acid cells?
DNA and RNA
What is DNA composed of?
two long sugar-phosphate chains, which twist around each other in a double-helix configuration and are linked by pairs of nitrogenous organic bases at the sugar molecule of the chain
What attaches the bases to each other and joins the two side rails of the DNA ladder?
What are the nitrogenous organic bases in DNA?
1. Adenine (A)
2. Thymine (T)
3. Guanine (G)
4. Cytosine (C)
What does DNA contain and carry?
All the information the cell needs to function and the genetic information necessary for cell replication
What does DNA regulate?
All cellular activity to direct protein synthesis
What does DNA determine?
A person's characteristics by regulating the sequence of amino acids in the person's constituent proteins during synthesis of these proteins
What constitutes the genetic code?
the sequence of nitrogenous base pairs in a DNA molecule
DNA regulates cellular activity indirectly, transmitting its genetic information outside the cell nucleus by reproducing itself in the form of:
What happens when mRNA leaves the nucleus?
Once into the cytoplasm, it directs the process of making proteins out of amino acids
How does mRNA differ from DNA?
Appears as a single strand of the DNA ladder like configuration, the ladder being severed in half lengthwise
What is tRNA?
Receives genetic code from mRNA that combines with individual amino acids from different areas of the cell and attaches them to the ribosomes, where amino acids are arranged in specific orders to form chainlike protein molecules
At least _________ types of tRNA exist, one for each amino acid
What travels with mRNA and links with tRNA and its corresponding amino acids in the correct order so that the proteins necessary to provide for the needs of the cell are produced?
What is rRNA?
Another type of RNA that functions to assist in the linking of mRNA to the ribosome to facilitate protein synthesis
What are chromosomes?
Tiny rod-shaped bodies that under a microscope appear to be long threadlike structures that become visible only in dividing cells
What are chromosomes composed of?
Protein and DNA
Normal humans have _________________ different chromosomes (23 pairs) in each somatic (nonreproductive) cell
Reproductive cells (germ cells) have only _________ chromosomes each
What are genes?
Segments of DNA that serve as the basic unit of heredity
What does each gene contain?
Information responsible for directing cytoplasmic activity, controlling growth and development of the cell, and transmitting hereditary information
What do genes control the formation of?
Proteins in every cell through the intricate process of genetic coding
What is the human genome?
The total amount of genetic material (DNA) contained within the chromosomes of a human being
What is mapping?
The process of locating and identifying the genes in the genome
How many base pairs are in the human genome?
The 2.9 billion base pairs are arranged into approx. _____________ genes
It is estimated that these genes are capable of producing _______________ different proteins
Data obtained from the human genome project has allowed us to work on problems in:
What are inorganic compounds?
Compounds that do not contain carbon
What are examples of inorganic compounds?
Acids, bases, and salts (electrolytes)
What are the most important inorganic substances?
water and mineral salts
Water constitutes approx. _________________ of the body's weight
80% to 85%
What is the function of water within the cell?
It is the medium in which the chemical reactions that are the basis of metabolic activities occur and acts as a solvent, keeping compounds dissolved so that they can more easily interact and their concentration may be regulated
What is the function of water outside of the cell?
Functions as a transport vehicle for materials the cell uses or eliminates, is responsible for maintaining a constant body core temp. of 98.6 F (37 C), lubricates both the digestive system and skeletal articulations, and protects organs such as the brain and lungs
What is the function of mineral salts within the cell?
To keep correct proportion of water in the cell to maintain osmotic pressure that is necessary for proper cell performance, creation of energy, and conduction of impulses along nerves
What causes materials to be altered, broken down, and recombined to form new substances?
Ions, constituents of salt, via chemical reaction
What are the components of the cell?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, cytoplasmic organelles, nucleus
What are the different cytoplasmic organelles?
Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus or complex, mitochondria, lysosomes, ribosomes, and centrosomes
What is the cell membrane?
Located in the cytoplasm; Plastic storage bag - Functions as a barricade to protect cellular contents from their environment and controls the passage of water and other materials into and out of the cell; performs many additional functions, such as elimination of wastes and refining of material for energy through breakdowns of materials
What is the endoplasmic recticulum?
Located in the cytoplasm; The highway - Enables the cell to communicate with the extracellular environment and transfers food from one part of the cell to another
What is the golgi apparatus?
Located in the cytoplasm; Freight hauling - Unites large carbohydrate molecules and combines them with proteins to form glycoproteins; transports enzymes and hormones through the cell membrane so that they can exit the cell, enter the bloodstream, and be carried to areas of the body in which they are required
What is the mitochondria?
Located in the cytoplasm; Power-generating stations - Produce energy for cellular activity by breaking down nutrients through a process of oxidation
What are lysosomes?
Located in the cytoplasm; Garbage bags with poison pills - Dispose of large particles such as bacteria and food, as well as smaller particles; also contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down and digest proteins, certain carbohydrates, and the cell itself if the lysosomes surrounding membrane breaks
What are ribosomes?
Located in the cytoplasm; Manufacturing facilities - Manufacture the carious proteins that cells require
What are centrosomes?
Located in the cytoplasm; Spindle weaver - Plays an important role in organizing the formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division
What is the nucleus?
Information-processing and administrative center of the cell - Contains the genetic, or hereditary, material, DNA, and proteins. Also contain the nucleolus. The nucleus controls cell division and multiplication and the biochemical reactions that occur within the cell, also directs protein synthesis
What is DNA?
Located in the nucleus; The blueprints - Contains the genetic material; controls cell division and multiplication and biochemical reactions that occur within the living cell
What is the nucleolus?
Located in the nucleus; RNA copy center - Holds a large amount of RNA and synthesizes ribosomes
What is cell division?
The multiplication process whereby one cell divides to form two or more cells
What are the two types of cell division?
mitosis and meiosis
What is mitosis?
A process in which the nucleus first divides, followed by the division of the cytoplasm
A process that occurs when all somatic cells divide
What is meiosis?
A process of reduction cell division
Process that occurs when genetic cells divide
Special type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell to half the number of chromosomes in the parent cell
What does the process of mitosis result in?
An approx. equal distribution of all cellular material between the two daughter cells
What are the 4 phases of the cellular life cycle?
G1, S, G2, M
What are the 4 subphases of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
What is interphase?
the period of cell growth that occurs before actual mitosis
What is prophase?
the first stage of cell division, before metaphase, during which the chromosomes become visible as paired chromatids and the nuclear envelope disappears. The first prophase of meiosis includes the reduction division.
What is metaphase?
2nd phase of mitosis where chromosomes line up.
What is anaphase?
the stage of meiotic or mitotic cell division in which the chromosomes move away from one another to opposite poles of the spindle.
What is telophase?
the final phase of cell division, between anaphase and interphase, in which the chromatids or chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell and two nuclei are formed.
What are monozygotic twins?
What are polyzygotic siblings?
When there are more than two multiple births at once (triplets or quads etc)
What are dizygotic twins?
Sets with similar terms
Radiation Protection Chap 5-6
Radiation Protection Chap 5-6
Chapter 6 Overview of Cell Biology
Radiation Protection Chapter 6
Sets found in the same folder
Chapter 7 Book/PowerPoint
Chapter 8 Book/PowerPoint
Chapter 1 Key Terms
Chapter 9 Book/PowerPoint
Other sets by this creator
Unit 4 Exam
Unit 3 Exam
Chapter 6 Key Terms
Unit 2 Exam