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Chapter 1- Orientation and Fire Service History
Terms in this set (115)
Jamestown in 1608
First recorded major fire in the New World
Boston in 1678
First ever paid fire company
What year did Boston purchase its first fire engine?
In ______, the city of _____ banned thatched roofs and wooden chimneys to prevent the outbreak of fires.
1647; Surveyors of Buildings
What year was the first fire organization formed in North America? What was it called?
Acted as fire wardens, performing fire prevention work and imposed fines on violators
What was the function of the Surveyors of Buildings?
1736; the Union Volunteer Fire Company in Philladelphia
In _____, Benjamin Franklin guided the formation of __________.
When did horse-drawn steam pumpers replace hand-operated pumps?
When did the automotive fire apparatus age begin?
Iron replaced wooden frames and then steel replaced iron, allowing the construction of skyscrapers. This allowed large numbers of people to work in tall buildings with only limited means of escape.
How did the Industrial Revolution influence building construction? What concerns did this create for the fire service?
1896; National Fire Protection Association formed to develop consensus-based codes and standards intended to ensure fire and life safety
NFPA formation and purpose
NFPA 13, which regulated the design and installation of fire protection sprinkler systems
What was the first standard published by the NFPA?
When was the National Electric Code published?
Chicago (1903); Theater was designed to be fireproof. 602 died and 250 injured when combustible scenery, curtains and interior finish were ignited by electric spotlight. Most of dead were trampled.
Iroquois Theater Fire
Laws enacted requiring panic hardware on exit doors; Exit doors required to swing outward; limits placed on number of theater seats in an aisle and amount of combustible materials allowed in assembly places
Results of Iroquois Theater Fire
Toronto; Fire destroyed 104 building in central business district. Fire spread rapidly due to unprotected elevator shafts and stairways.
The Great Fire of 1904
Major building code changes requiring fire doors and walls sprinkler systems, larger water mains, additional fire alarm boxes and removal of overhead obstructions along streets; size of fire department also increased
Results of The Great Fire of 1904
New York City, 1911; Fireproof 10-story clothing manufacturing building caught on fire killing 146 employees
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
NFPA 101, Life Safety Code (Building Exits Code) established requirements for means of egress.
Results of the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
Boston, 1942; single-story nightclub fire killed 492 because of overcrowding, lack of emergency lighting and use of combustible interior finishes/decor.
Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire
Stricter fire and life safety requirements for assembly-type occupancies
Results of Cocoanut Grove Nightclub Fire
Hartford, 1944; Circus tent fire killed 168 as a result of paraffin and gasoline use in tent waterproofing, as well as inadequate and blocked exits
Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus Fire
Development of life safety standards to regulate manufacture and use of tens for public occupancy
Results of Barnum and Bailey Circus Fire
Chicago, 1958; 92 children and 3 teachers killed by fire worsened by unprotected stairwells, combustible interior finish and lack of fire alarm system
Our Lady of the Angels School Fire
Improvements in school building design; fire detection and alarm system requirement; enclosed stairwells; laws requiring schools to conduct regular fire evacuation drills throughout the year
Results of Our Lady of the Angels School Fire
Las Vegas, 1980; Fire in unsprinklered casino killed 85 and injured 678 in the 26-story hotel above. Majority killed by smoke inhalation when smoke spread via stairwells, elevator shafts, and ventilations/pipe shafts.
MGM Grand Hotel Fire
Local laws enacted requiring medium and high-rise buildings to install sprinkler systems
Results of MGM Grand Hotel Fire
West Warwick, 2003; Stage pyrotechnics ignited fire in crowded nightclub killing 100 and injuring 256. Fire spread rapidly due to lack of sprinkler system. Fatalities resulted mainly from occupants attempting to escape through main entrance versus other closer exits. Bottleneck at exit caused deaths by trampling and smoke inhalation to those trapped
Station Nightclub Fire
Greater awareness of need for occupants of assembly-type locations to be aware of and use closest exit. NFPA made changes to fire sprinkler and crowd management requirements for nightclubs and assembly occupancies
Results of Station Nightclub Fire
Oklahoma City, 1995; Truck bomb exploded outside Federal Office Building killing 168 people.
Murrah Building Bombing
Installation of securing barriers around government facilities (limited access/operational challenges arose); Increased emphasis on structural-collapse, confined-space/search and rescue training and equipment.
Results of Murrah Building Bombing
2001; Several Firefighters and Emergency responders died as a result of communication failures
World Trade Center and Pentagon Terrorist Attacks
Increase in funding to provide equipment, apparatus and training related to hazmat responses and search and rescue. It also forced the fire service to improve interoperability
Results of 9/11 Attacks
National Commission on Fire Prevention and Control
What organization was authorized but the Fire Research and Safety Act of 1968?
Determine how to reduce fire loss in America
What was the purpose of the NCFPC?
Published by the NCFPC in 1973; Emphasized the need for public fire and life safety educations, fire code inspection/ enforcement, and plans review divisions.
Published in 1987
Second Edition of "American Burning"
Firefighter Line of Duty Deaths
Total Firefighter Injuries
Hosted by the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation in 2004; resulted in Everyone Goes Home program and 16 Firefighter Life Safety Initiatives to reduce LODDs by 50% by 2014.
Firefighter Life Safety Summit
Developing of new fire suppression agents and ways to safely respond to chemical leaks and spills. Hazmat control procedures drafted and personnel trained.
Hazardous Material manufacturing increase post WWII resulted in ________.
Laws and regulations enacted to address the increasing hazmat problems. They regulate hazardous materials transport, transport vehicle design, and emergency responder training
Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA Title III) and OSHA 1910.120
Insurance Services Office (ISO) and the Commission on Fire Accreditation International (CFAI)
Two major accrediting agencies
Developed in Los Angeles during the 1990s to address concerns about he lack of minorities in the ranks.
Reseach, Education and Implementation
3 stages of Community-based programs
The shared assumptions, beliefs, and values of a group or organization that influence the perceptions and behavior of its members.
-A command structure, including chain of command
-Ranks to define positions within the structure
-Uniforms, badges and symbols of rank
-Emphasis on teamwork, discipline and following orders
Characteristic of the fire service
Diversity, Resistance to Change, Differences of Personal Characteristics, Accepting Personal Responsibility
Cultural Challenges of the fire service
Integrity, Moral Character, Work Ethic, Pride, Courage, Loyalty, Respect, Compassion
Cultural Strengths of the fire service
Following a strict ethical code and doing the right thing simply because it is right, not because it is required.
Right or just behavior with an emphasis on trust; following through with your actions.
Doing what needs to be done without being told, doing what you are asked to do without complaint, doing the task completely and doing it to the best of your ability; valuing the the virtues of hard work and thoroughness.
Demonstrated by personal appearance, displaying of fire service symbols on personal vehicles, etc.
The ability to confront fear, pain, danger or uncertainty.
Caring about citizens, fellow firefighters and families.
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
Used in codes and standards to identify the legal entity, such as a building or fire official, that has the statutory authority to encores a code and to approve or require equipment.
Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ)
Who determines what services are needed to protect it citizens and then establishes the fire service to meet that need.
-Establish the organization of the department
-Determin number of facilities and their locations, types of apparatus, number of personnel and overall type of department
-Establish hierarchy/organizational chard, assigning functions and responsibilities to specific jobs and ranks
-Set requirements for minimum levels of training and certification necessary to attain ranks
Responsibilities of the AHJ
Provides a coordinated approach to a wide variety of incidents; all responders use a similar, coordinated approach with a common set of authorities, protections and resources.
Protecting lives, property and the environment
What is the main mission of the Fire Service?
This type of organization is funded by the community through taxes, fees, grants, fund-raisers, donations and contracts.
This type of organization raises money through contracts, billing for services, and revenue provided by their parent organization. They typically provide services to a single company or facility.
Career, Volunteer, Combination
3 main types of staffing found in the fire service
These departments employ full-time firefighters and other personnel to provide necessary services
Personnel in these departments receive minimal or no pay for their work. Some are publicly funded.
These are staffed by a mixture of career and volunteer firefighters.
Deliver emergency services to external customers (the public).
Provide administrative and logistical support for internal customers (line personnel), in areas such as finance, maintenance, and training.
The basic unit of fire fighting operations which is commanded by an officer and typically includes a driver/operator or engineer.
Engine, Truck (Ladder), Rescue Squad, Brush, HazMat, EMS, Special rescue, Aircraft rescue/fire fighting
Types of Companies
Performs fire suppression duties at structure, vehicle, wild land, and other types of fires. Additional duties may include search and rescue extrication, ventilation, and emergency medical care.
Truck (Ladder) Company
Performs forcible entry, search and rescue, ventilations, salvage and overhaul, utilities controls and provides access to upper levels of a structure. May provide elevated water streams, extrications, and emergency medical care.
Searches for and removes victims from areas of danger or entrapment and ma perform technical rescues.
Extinguishes ground cover or grass fires and protects structures in areas close to fields and woodlands.
Line, area, or zone where an undeveloped wild land area meets a human development area.
Mitigates hazardous materials incidents.
Emergency Medical/Ambulance Company
Provides emergence medical care to patients and may transport them to a medical facility.
Special Rescue Company
Performs technical rescues, including rapid intervention for the rescue of firefighters.
Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Company
Performs rescue and fire suppression activities involving aircraft accidents.
NFPA Standard 1001, Standard for Fire Fighter Professional Qualifications.
Qualifications for firefighters are based on which NFPA standard? It establishes basic criteria and distinguishes between two levels of competency/professionalism.
NFPA 1582, Standard on Comprehensive Occupational Medical Program for Fire Departments
Sets the medical requirement for fire department candidates.
Firefighter I and Firefighter II
Two levels for firefighter certification
NFPA 472, Standard for Competence of Responders to HazMat/Weapons of Mass Destruction Incidents
Defines the hazardous materials requirements for Firefighter I.
Incident Command System (ICS)
Standardized approach to incident management that facilitates interaction between cooperating agencies; adaptable to incidents of any size or type.
Firefighter I works under the direct supervision of a Firefighter II or company officer. Firefighter II is trained to coordinate Firefighter I and Firefighter II personnel while working under the supervision of a company officer.
Primary difference between Firefighter I and Firefighter II duties
This line function is in direct contact with the public through building inspections, code enforcement, plans review and public education.
NFPA 1031, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Inspector and Plan Examiner
Minimum requirements required of Fire Inspectors and Plans Examiners
NFPA 1033, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire Investigator
Fire and Arson Investigators must be certified to the minimum requirements of ________.
NFPA 1035, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Fire and Life Safety Educator, Public Information Officer and Juvenile Firesetter Intervention Specialist
Fire and Life Safety Educators should meet the minimum requirements of ________.
Uniformed or nonuniformed personnel who ensure code compliance by reviewing architectural plans and fire protection system plans, for both new construction and renovations.
Fire and Arson Investigators
Uniformed personnel who investigate fires and explosions to determine their origin and cause.
Fire Prevention Officers/Inspectors
Uniformed or nonuniformed personnel who perform periodic inspections, enforce building and fire codes and interact wight he public.
Fire and Life Safety Educators
Uniformed or nonuniformed personnel who inform the public about fire and life safety hazards, fire causes and precautions, or actions to take during a fire.
Fire Protection Engineers/Specialists
Uniformed or nonuniformed personnel who check architectural and fire protection systems plans for proposed buildings to ensure compliance with local fire and life safety codes and ordinances.
Fire Department Health and Safety Officer (HSO)
Uniformed or non uniformed officer who oversees the department's occupational safety and health program.
-NFPA 1500, Standard on Fire Department Occupational Safety and Health Program
-NFPA 1521, Standard for Fire Department Safety Officer
Programs for Firefighter safety and health are described in ______
NFPA 1061, Standard for Professional Qualifications for Public Safety Telecommunications
Minimum training requirements for telecommunicators
NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code
Technicians who maintain municipal fire alarm systems do so based not he requirements of _______.
NFPA 1071, Standard for Emergency Vehicle Technician Professional Qualifications
Minimum certification for apparatus and equipment maintenance personnel
NFPA 1041, Standard for Fire Service Instructor Professional Qualifications
Instructors must be certified to Firefighter I and Training Officers to Firefighter II or higher, based on the requirements of ________.
-Chain of Command
-Unity of Command
-Span of Control (3 to 7)
-Division of Labor
Organizational Principles of the fire service
A guide to decision-making within an organization; determined by top management and distributed to lower ranks to be implemented.
Step-by-step written plan that is closely related to a policy; help an organization to ensure that it consistently approaches a task in the correct way.
Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs)
Rule for how personnel should perform routine functions or emergency operations; typically written in a handbook.
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)
U.S. Federal laws the pertain to firefighters are included in the ____________.
A set of principles, protocols or procedures that explain how to do something or provide a set of minimum standards to be followed.
Collection of rules and regulations that has been enacted by law in a particular jurisdiction; typically address a single subject area.
Orders and Directives
Issued from the top of the chain of command and used to implement departmental policies and procedures; may be written or verbal.
EMS, Hospitals, Emergency/Disaster Management, Law Enforcement, Utility Companies, Public Works Department, Media
Other Organizations that may require interaction with the Fire Service
Department that typically oversees the construction and maintenance of public roads, buildings, and sewers; in some jurisdictions they also oversee the water distribution system.
Never answer questions or offer an opinions unless authorized to do so; Direct journalist to the Public Information Officer or Incident Commander.
When approached by the media, firefighters should _________.
Supervise a fire company in the stations and at fires and otter emergencies.
Supervise a group of fire companies and stations; may also manage units responsible for logistics, fire prevention, training, planning or other functions.
Manage a variety of upper level functions, sic as emergency operations, administration, fire preventions, or training.
Mange the fire prevention, plans review and investigation divisions; may hold a chief officer rank
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