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AP Government - Chapter 4 - Federalism
Terms in this set (69)
The Constitution establishes the ______ rules for voting but the states establish the ______ rules for choosing the president.
Despite Bush's waning majority vote in Florida, SCOTUS ruled in favor of Bush because of Florida's ____ __th deadline for a Presidential winner
aren't, cannot, ordered, Bush, recount, Barnett, black
Governors ____ (are, aren't) equals to presidents, but the president ____ (can, cannot) order governors to do things. Clinton ordered ____ to_____, but he did not, and Kennedy ordered Miss. Gov. _____ to admit a ____ student to Ole Miss to no avail.
Division of power between a central government and regional governments combining a confederacy with a unitary government. Created by the Framers of the US Constitution.
Federalist papers No. __ says, "The federal Constitution forms a happy combination ..[of].. the great and aggregate interests being referred to the national, and the local and particular to state governments." So states have power to marry and Federal government has power to coin money.
America is Federalists because of our ______, because people feared that people from other regions would rule them and their customs.
changing, ambiguities, pragmatically
American Federalism is always ______, because of the constitution's ______ about it, causing politicians to make decisions ______ and not based on whether it fits federalism.
Layer-cake federalism that holds that the constitution is a compact among sovereign states, so that the powers of the national government and the states are clearly differentiated.
enumerated powers, constitutional, sovereign, tension, cooperation
In Dual Federalism, the 2 functions of the federal government is to rule by _________ _______ only and rule by __________ purposes. The 2 principles are that nation and states are _______ and that state and federal relationships are built on _____ rather than ______.
In Dual Federalism, States and Nations are ______ to each other with a wall ________ the two.
States' Rights, Dual
Rights not specifically conferred on the federal government by the constitution are reserved to the states. Supported by ____ federalism.
____ federalism believe federal powers should be interpreted narrowly.
dual federalism, cooperative federalism
____ ______ notes the 10th amendment, limiting federal powers and giving all non-enumerated powers to the states, while ____ ______ points to the elastic clause of implied powers to support their arguments.
The problem with ______ _______ is that the federal government is the creation of 13 states, the other 37 were created by the federal government, so they are not exactly equal entities. Second, people ratified the constitution, not the states, but people are not factored into this federalism. Third, it is we the people not we the states.
Marble cake Federalism that the constitution is an agreement among people who are citizens of both state and nation, so there is much overlap between state powers and national powers. Therefore, national and state governments do not act in separate spheres, they are mixed. Ex. Land grant colleges.
Cooperative federalism relies on the ______ ______ of the constitution that national law supersedes state law.
The ____ _____ of the Constitution of implied powers has allowed the federal government to increase its powers during war and crisis
cooperative federalism, emergency relief programs, regulations
The Great Depression and the New Deal is an example of ____ ________, as states could not handle the problem, so Fed. Gov. passed _______ _____ ______ with state government help. By attaching _____ to the funds going to the states, they increased their power.
national, cooperative federalism, tranquility, welfare
The New Deal was the turning point when local problems became ______ problems, causing ______ ______ to work to ensure the constitutional duty of the Fed. Gov to insure _____ and general ______.
cooperative federalism, USA-Patriot Act, DOJ, DHS, Terrorism Information Awareness Program
9/11's response is an example of _______ ________ as the __-_____ ___ expanded the investigative powers of the ___. Also the ____ was created and the _______ ________ _______ _______ was created to monitor suspicious activity, but ruled illegal.
grows, voting rights act, 15th, 1, 2
The national government ____ when state and local governments cannot meet demands. For example, the ______ ______ _____ supported by the ____ amendment corrected the injustice of literacy tests that the states thought the Article __ Section __ of the constitution gave them in specifying voting rules.
19th, 20th, 21st, 20th
SCOTUS favors states from ___ century to early ____ century and ___ century, and SCOTUS favors Fed. Gov. the rest of the ___ century.
McCulloch v. Maryland, Marshall, Article 1, cooperative
In ______ _ ______, CJ _____ established that the Fed. Gov. has a right to make a national bank because _____ __ of the constitution of the implied powers gives them the power to. Also because there is a direct relationship between the Fed. Gov. and the people, no need for a state in the middle Also that state cannot tax the federal bank, as it would allow it to destroy it. Example of ____ federalism.
Taney, Dredd Scott, Dual
CJ ____ after Marshall, interpreted the Fed. Gov's power narrowly in prohibiting it from prohibiting slavery in the territories in ____ _____ decision. Example of ______ federalism.
federal government, public opinion, court packing
In the New Deal Era of the 20th century, the court sided with the _____ (federal government, states) to match _____ _____ or to prevent ____ ______ by FDR in the "Switch in Time that Saved Nine"
commerce clause, US v Lopez, Violence Against Women Act
The supreme court often flip-flops on the ______ _____ like in stopping congress from banning guns near schools in _____ __ _____ because of the commerce clause or in stopping the _____ _____ ______ ____ that violated the commerce clause in allowing federal lawsuits for victims.
Printz v United States, Scalia, Dual Federalism
In _____ _ _____ ______, congress was requiring local officials to implement a system of background checks on behalf of the federal government. Justice ____ invoked ______ _______ in saying that the national government was impressing local officials into the national government and that congress cannot transfer the president's responsibility to local law enforcement.
Lawrence v Texas
In ______ _ ______, SCOTUS denied Texas the right to regulate sexual relations, especially homosexual ones.
Atkins v Virginia
In _____ __ ______, SCOTUS denied Virginia the right to execute mentally disabled people.
Money provided by one level of government to another to be spent for a given purpose, often with matching requirements.
The Fed. Gov. uses ___ incentives to gain influence in state governments. States benefit too.
Grants-in-aid targeted for a specific purpose by either formula or project. This includes formula and project grants.
Categorical grants distributed according to a particular set of rules, called a formula, that specify who is eligible for the grants and how much each eligible applicant will receive. Factors could include poverty, number of children, etc.
Categorical grants awarded on the basis of competitive applications submitted by prospective recipients to perform a specific task of function. (more commonly used) (Ex. environment, health, AIDS)
Grants-in-aid awarded for general purposes, allowing the recipient great discretion and choice in spending the grant money.
Differences between block and categorical grants: _____ grants are used to fix funding in foreign language classes, while _____ grants are used to fix high schools.
_______ are used to redistribute wealth from people to states, from rich states to poor states, reducing the inequality between states. Also used by Fed. Gov. (by withholding them) to enforce national standards.
_____ and ______ began returning money to the states, doubling the amount ever 5 years until it reached 207 billion dollars for various things like transportation and healthcare.
South Dakota v Dole, 10th, 21st
In ______ __ ______, a state did not want to make the drinking age 21 like the Fed. Gov. wanted, so the state sued on the ___ and ___ amendments. Justices agreed that the Fed. Gov. can indirectly force them to lower the age through grant-in-aid lost for their highways. Clinton used cash in the same way in making a .08 drunk driving standard.
professional, more, more, qualified, state, better, interest groups
States are more professional now because states hire more _______ staff, legislatures meet ___ days of the year and earn ___, the higher salaries attract better _____ people to run for state office, raise more revenue with ___ taxes, _____ educated with master degreees. However, state have more _______ _____ straining them.
great society, Elementary and Secondary Education Act
LBJ's _____ _____ effort created the _______ ___ ________ ________ ____ to provide fed. assistance to disadvantages students through state departments of education.
Citizens, members of interest groups, or public officials who champion policy ideas. Good ones use many doorways to push policy when one door is closed.
Layer-cake or dual-federalism is supported by ________ because states have different problems and allowing states to confront their problems experimentally will create more diversity and competition. Also state government is closer to the people.
Marble-cake of cooperative federalism is supported by ______ because states' rights can promote extreme political and social inequalities that supports racism, so the fed. gov. must support equality.
LBJ's great society and FDR's new deal supports ____ _______ in promoting housing, education, and urban renewal
Nixon's new federalism and Reagan's new new Federalism supports ______ ______ in changing categorical grants to block ones, returning money to the states, and by restoring the proper relationship between state and federal government.
Clinton is not like LBJ or FDR, he saw the Fed. Gov. as a ___ to guide states to experiment with problems.
states' rights, reductions
Bush, the compassionate conservative, promoted ______ ______ and scaled back on ______ to Fed. Gov. budget.
Preemption, Nutrition Labeling and Education Act
_______ is when Congress enacts laws by which the national government assumes total or partial responsibility for a state gov. function. A modern power that infringes states rights. Ex. ______ ______ ___ _________ ____ to uniformly label all foods.
A requirement laid down by an act of Congress, prohibiting a state or local government from exercising a certain power.
States, Unfunded Mandates Relief Act
_____ are opposed to Fed. Gov. mandates that impose financial support from states, so the _______ _________ _______ ____ was passed to force the congressional budget office to prepare costs for legislation that would make states pay excessively.
Reagan supported more fed. gov. briefs than Clinton, because Federalism always takes a backseat to ______ and _______. Briefs supported business. Another example of this is congressional roll call.
Many ______ become ______ because of their connections with other governors and connections with the National Governor's Association and respective party groups.
The process of redrawing the political boundaries to reflect changes in the population. Assigning the amount of seats in congress to states is simple, but the boundaries of districts is highly political.
In 2003 Texas, US House majority whip _____ worked with Texas legislature to redistrict. The house democrats fled the state, and he used the Department of Homeland Security and FAA to catch them. Caused controversy. Federalism influencing redistricting.
States must clear their redistricting with the Federal government to confirm that their plans are not "retrogressive in purpose or effect" in diluting a minority voting strength. This was made under the Voting Rights Act for several states. Even if states pass the test, they can still be sued.
Government units that administer a city or town
Government unit that administers elementary and secondary school programs
Government units created to perform particular functions, especially when those functions are best performed across jurisdictional boundaries. (Ex. Fire protection, water safety)
The right to enact and enforce legislation locally
___ governments are created by state governments in their constitutions or legislations, so powers and responsibilities vary by state
participate, informed, majoritarian, low, pluralist
Local government allows people to ________ in politics and become _____ citizens in a _______ democracy, but ___ local voter turnout says contrary, and some argue that it gives more access points to interest groups in a _______ democracy.
Smaller political units can allow for a _____ response than larger units, but they also have ____ financial resources.
This event saw local police, state police, capital police, and the Attorney General work together and fight their ground.
1, 8, 10
Article __ and Section __ of the constitution gives the legislative branch the right to regulate commerce with foreign countries and section __ prohibits states from entering into treaties, alliances, or confederations. Also prevents them from imposing duties unless they benefit the US treasury and are absolutely necessary.
Many state governments have _____ offices that coordinate with the US Department of Commerce and State International Development Organizations.
States can use _____ policy to advance human rights like Massachusetts unconstitutionally did with Burma.
____-____ are going out of favor as most countries do not have common characteristics like race, religion, and language.
confederation, federalist, unitary, federalist
America transitioned from a loose ______ to a ______ government, while Iraq is transitioning from a ______ system to a _______ government. In Iraq, the complex sects and ethnicities means one group cannot have too little or too much power.
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