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Christian History 1 (Calvin Seminary)
Terms in this set (84)
1. Began with conquest of Alexandar the Great in 331 B.C. Ended some time between 146 B.C. and 30 B.C. when last Alexandarian ruler was defeated in Egypt.
2. Spread Greek culture and influence throughout the Middle East.
3. Through imperialism the Greeks unified peoples creating city states, spreading the use of the Greek Language (koine), and making historical contributions in math, science, and philosophy that are still relevant today.
4. This facilitated mass communication and news spreading throughout the empire.
1. Politically, one of the longest periods in history of peace (pax Romana). Dissemination of ideas is easy. Rome gets along well with those it has conquered (allows Sanhedrin to administer its own religion rules).
3. Culturally, a melting pot of all other cultures, with good roads and common language that allowed Christianity to spread.
3. Morally brothels, public obscenity, abortions, gladiators, blood flowing in the street, beastiality, in love with death itself.
4. Religiously, leaders are indifferent to it but used religion to help govern the empire, keep peace. The question wasn't truth. It was practicality, utilitarian.
1. Refers to the authors of works written in 90-150 AD. by the ext generation of the church after the apostles.
2. Gives us a glimpse into the life of the early church.
3. They show Christianity as a new religion with debate and conflict -- not organized fully, no governing documents, lots of questions about culture, ethics, sacraments, major issues... Foundational questions about interpretation of Scripture, etc.
4. The unity of the church was very important to these early authors. They were willing to debate, but their unity was just as important.
1. An early Christian document that did not make it into the canon.
2. Gives us a glimpse into the life of the church in 100-200 A.D.
3. Starts with wise proverbial sayings about light and darkness.
4. Then talks about church leadership and how to conduct sacraments, things not dealt with in the NT in detail., including church order.
Ignatius of Antioch
1. He wrote 7 letters to churches in 117 AD, just before he died a martyr's death. He wrote about:
2. Unity of church
3. Leadership of church
4. What sort of authority should we grant church leaders?
1. An early church father, bishop of Smyrna (69-155).
2. He quoted from the Gospels and Paul's letters before they were canonical.
3. He was a 2nd century martyr (burned at the stake, but stabbed when the fire failed to touch him). His pupil, Irenaeus, became a great anti-gnostic teacher. Wrote to the Philippian church. Was a disciple of the apostle John.
Reasons for persecution
1. Christians didn't worship with graven images, so they were accused of being atheists.
2. Christians' practice of eating the body of Christ led people to accuse them of being cannibals.
3. Because Christians greeted each other as brother and sisters but kissed, they were accused of immorality and incest.
4. They were accused of anarchy and treason because they refused to worship the Emperor.
1st century Christians were persecuted by Nero because he blamed Rome burning on them (64). He threw them to lions. - severe persecution in the first century under Emperor Nero.
Purposes of apologetic writings
1. Apologia is Greek for a "speech for defense," such as when Plato wrote an apology for Socrates, or when Paul preached in Acts 22 and 26.
3. Apologies seek to make contact between the claims of the Gospel and the needs of their age.
4. They can be: Defensive (a reaction to misunderstandings from Romans, pleading for understanding), Offensive (saying to pagan opponents that Christianity is a better religion, pointing out weaknesses of opponents), Constructive (teaching Christianity in an organized fashion), or Evangelistic (appealing in the hopes of converting people).
4. The greatest value was to Christians themselves, who were articulating their systematic theology for this first time.
1. Justin Martyr was a Gentile, born in Samaria (between Galilee and Judea), who grew up a Platonist and was converted to Christianity.
3. He moved to Rome, where he became a Christian teacher. They taught common people and prospective converts.
4. In his first apology, Justin shows that the OT points forward to the Logos as the Messiah, the true Savior.
5. His doctrine of the Logos as the source of all truth has greatly impacted Christian history since. (Any light that anyone ever had is due to this Word.) Greek philosophers, then, are in some way even connected to God already through rationality and their discovery of true ideas.
1. A son of a bishop and a heretic who said Jesus was not human but only appeared human (Docetism).
2. His thinking was characterized by antitheses -- Creator God of the OT and the God of the NT revealed in Jesus... the Giver of the Law (Justice) and the God of Mercy.
3. He said the authoritative, truly inspired texts were 10 Pauline epistles and the Gospel of Luke.
4. He removed any positive references to the Jews or the God of the OT. This was the first attempt to define the canon.
He fails to recognize progressive revelation and how to read the OT. He oversimplifies the problem of love and justice in God -- failing to see both love and justice in the death of Jesus. He views grace as antithetical to creation, rather than the completion of creation (as it really is, according to Irenaeus).
1. Metaphysical Dualism - the world consists of a high spiritual good world and a lower material evil world. People strive to escape the lower world.
2. Material world is wrong/meaningless/evil, including our bodies. Yearn for escape ("salvation") though esoteric knowledge of ourselves and the world (not so much knowledge about God).
3. Knowledge is given only to "insiders." (No seeker-sensitive services.
4. Syncretistic -- it can fit various ideas into its system, including Christian ideas (as did Valentinus, a high ranking Christian).
5. Ireneus was a chief opponent of the Gnostics..
6. Prominent universities even today promote gnostic texts (Gospel of Mary, Gospel of Phillip, etc.). They fail to realize the canonical Gospels are the ones that stirred up all the controversy!
1. Irenaeus (b. 140) was the earliest of the anti-gnostic teachers, a second century church father.
2. He grew up in Smyrna in Asia Minor and was a pupil of Polycarp (a martyr who talked with the Apostle John).
3. His major work was "Against Heresies: Unmasking and Refuting Knowledge Falsely So Called."
4. He is considered the first great theologian of the church... the founder of Christian theology (according to Tertullian). He helped shape the understanding of the authoritative canon, quoting what became the NT. A theologian of unity -- God, Jesus, history, revelation, humans, faith, etc.
Against Heresies (by Irenaeus)
Rule of Faith (or Rule of Truth)
1. The church has a "rule of faith" or a "rule of truth," which is a summary of apostolic teaching about the significance of Christ and the Good News of what he has done for us.
2. It guides right exegesis (even as Scripture guides it and allows us to test the creeds).
3. It is transmitted by way of tradition (proclaimed by prophets pointing to Christ, received by apostles and churches, transmitted onward by each generation).
4. It unifies the church (no matter where you are, you can be unified in the confession).
Fundamental difference between gnostics and Christians is that there is a consistency in the Christian faith -- one united teaching that can summarize all Scripture. Gnostics do not conform to the Rule of Faith!
canon and criteria of selection
1. Apostolicity - Writing was assumed to be canonical if it came directly from a disciple of Christ or the direct circle of the disciples, or if it contains the teaching of the apostles (Mark, for instance).
2. Orthodoxy - Does the content of the work conform to the rest of the NT canon? Does it abide by the Rule of Faith?
3. Antiquity - How old is the book? The Shepherd of Hermas, for instance, was not written in the apostolic age.
4. Usage - How much was the book used by church leaders and the church in its worship and teaching ministries?
episcopacy and the development of ordained offices
1. The form of church order in the NT seems quite flexible.
2. By the second century, we see the monepiscopate (a lead bishop is head of a local church).
3. By the third century, Cyprian is making strong statements about the bishop and his role in the church.
4. Apostolic succession was important in the battle against heretics like the gnostics. The Reformers would later say that the apostolic witness was in the NT canon and its faithful interpretation (not in a person).
purposes of early creedal statements
1. Creeds were summaries of apostolic teaching.
2. Most early creeds were Trinitarian in form and rejected Gnosticism and other heresies, though not explicitly by name (through positive identity statements0.
3. They organized teaching for catechumens so they can make an informed decision.
4. The are used as part of a baptism liturgy.
1. Named so because it contains a brief summary of their teaching (but was not directly written by them).
2. Simple, brief, dating no later than the 4th century.
3. It is the most ecumenical symbol of faith, used by most churches.
4. Trinitarian in structure. Fights heresy:
* Against gnostics, the creed says God is Father and maker of Heaven and earth.
* Against docetists, the creeds says Jesus was born, suffered and died.
* Against Jews, the creeds says Jesus was the Messiah.
* Against Marcion, the creed talks about the holy catholic church.
Clement of Alexandria
1. Third century church father from the East (d. ca. 215), the head of a catechal school in Alexandria.
2. He was trying to find bridges between Greek philosophy (Platonic thought) and Christianity to create a dialogue.
3. Similar to Justin Martyr, Clement said that the seeds scattered by the Logos could be found in secular learning (all truth is God's truth).
1. Origen (d. ca. 251) was born to devout Christian parents in ALexandria.
2. He was highly respected by non-Christians. Among Christians, though, his reception was mixed because of his speculative works (reincarnation, pre-existence of souls, universal salvation, etc.). Origenists made his speculation into dogma.
3. A prolific writer, creating 2,000 works, including commentaries, apologetics, homilies, etc. His work, the "Hexapla," was OT criticism in which he compared the Greek Septuagint with the Hebrew OT, word for word. He was over 1,000 years before his time!
4. He sought connections between Greek philosophy and Christian theology. He knew the eternal Word was alive in the biblical text. He saw the heart of the Gospel in all biblical texts.
1. Third century early church father from the West (North Africa).
2. He lived in Cathage, born to pagan parents, trained classically, converted as an adult and said Christians should be counter-cultural.
3. First to write in Latin about the Trinity, describing one substance with three persons and... one person with two substances (later, "natures") in Jesus Christ.
4. He joined the Montanists in his later life and criticized the laxness of the orthodox Christians and their clergy as individualistic and materialistic.
1. Third century early church father from the West.
2. Born into a wealthy family but gave it away to the poor when converted later in life. More moderate and sensitive than Tertullian.
3. Father of Christian ecclesiology. He wrote about the unity of the church, the nature and government of the church, the need to be engaged in good works and engage the culture, to give alms to the poor, etc.
4. He wrote "The Lapsed" to deal with Christians who had recanted under persecution but later wanted to be readmitted to the community. He ultimately says that if they are sincere in their repentance and restitution, they should be shown mercy.
5. Died a martyr by being beheaded.
1. Montanism was a Christian movement in the late 2rd and early 3rd centuries -- an ecstatic spiritual movement within the broad fold of Christianity, but not mainstream. Theologically orthodox, opposed gnosticism.
2. Named after founder and first prophet, Montanis. He was a pagan priest who, shortly after conversion, began prophesizing in the spirit.
3. They said true prophets engage in "unconscious ecstasy," without the cooperation of the person's rational mind. Caught up in the spirit, they are a passive tool of the Holy Spirit, not corrupted by their human tendencies.
4. They also believed in the continuing miraculous gifts of the Holy Spirit and emphasized greater disciplinary rigor (fasting, veils, etc.).
Monasticism: how did it begin? why was it attractive?
1. Monasticism is separating oneself from worldliness (not necessarily the world) in order to commit to the spiritual struggle toward maturity.
2. It involved asceticism, which comes from the Greek word for "exercise" or training or practice -- self-denial to facilitate union with God and move away from worldliness and toward service to others.
3. People in the 3rd and 4th centuries wanted to get away from the chaos of a crumbling empire. After Constantine declared Christianity a legal religion, it took on a very different character (not as lean and mean, more institutional).
4. Monasticism freed one from the hierarchy of the church and bad bishops who want to advance their own standing in the community. Monks replaced martyrs as ones who were highly sanctified.
1. Anchoritic monasticism sought to maximize separation from worldliness by being a hermit.
2. St. Anthony the Great wanted communal property ownership. He sold his property and give the proceeds to the poor and lived in seclusion for 20 years.
3. He moved further and further out. He becomes a spiritual father to those who follow him. These people are known as anchorites. Bishop Athanasius wrote a book about him, and Egypt became known as a place where monks live this way.
4. He became an inspiration for monasticism in Egypt.
1. An opposite form from Anchoritic.
2. Cenobitic (Greek for "common") monasticism was the fully communal life where people live under a monstic rule.
3. Pachomius (d. 346) built a monastery, and 3,000 people joined him to pray and live together.
1. Roman emperpor who gave the Edict of Milan in 313, declaring Christianity a legal religion.
2. He wanted no one to be discriminated against for their religion, even exclusivist religions.
3. His motives seem ambiguous. He was a great statesman more than a great Christian -- using this to unify the Empire as a sacral society
4. He could be very cruel -- killing wife, son and nephew. After his conversion, he worshiped God but stamped coins with the sun god. He also retained the title "high priest." He was a brilliant statesman and politician that made a good political move to unify the empire.
5. He poured money into the building of Christian churches, and Christian architecture began to develop.
Edict of Milan
Issued by Constantine in 313, ended the "great persecution" and legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire!
sacramental practices during the first 4 centuries
1. A trinitarian heresy also called Sabellianism.
2. Does not view Father, Son and Spirit as three particular "persons in relation" but merely as three modes or manifestations of the one divine person of God.
3. This came from the overriding concern in the 2nd and 3rd centuries that God must be one.
1. Belief that Jesus was caught up into divinity when God sees His baptism and is well pleased with Him.
2. (At least these people believe in the distinction between the Father and the Son.)
3. He was not originally divine by nature.
3. Another view is that God adopts him after the cross.
1. Tertullian's term.
2. He said the "trinitas" is one substance in three persons.
3. Still, even he was wrong, saying that Jesus was created with the rest of creation.
1. A Latin term the church adopted to help in describing God's oneness.
2. Tertullian wrote of "three Persons, one Substance" in the Latin "tres Personae, una Substantia."
1. A Latin term Tertullian used in describing God as being three in person.
1. Third and fourth century heresy founded by the Alexandrian priest Arius.
2. It denied Jesus' divinity, claiming that Jesus is neither God nor equal to the Father, but rather an exceptional creature raised to the level of "Son of God" because of his heroic fidelity to the Father's will and his sublime holiness.
3. Arius was a bishop from Alexandria. He said that in order to protect the impassibility of God, you can't have God in human flesh.
4. Arianism was condemned at the Council of Nicea.
Nicene Creed and homoousios
1. The Council of Nicea created the Nicean Creed, saying that Jesus was "begotten, not made."
2. He was "of the same substance/essence (homoousios) as the Father."
3. The Son is not metaphysically or morally inferior to the Father. He is not part of the created order.
4. This found overwhelming consensus at the Council of Nicea.
(Greek) Father, Son, and Holy Spirit as three persons
Christological options prior to Chalcedon
1. Apolinarus said Jesus had a human body but, instead of a human soul, it was replaced by the Logos. The Church declared that heretical. In 381, the Council said no because it doesn't do justice to Jesus' humanity.
2. Nestorius said Jesus was two persons with two natures. He wanted to separate the divinity and humanity to protect God's attributes.
3. Euticus from Alexandria said the divinity and humanity are so intertwined, a third person is formed that is neither divine or human or both. It is wholly different.
4. Cero of Alexandria said Jesus is one person with two natures, but he doesn't talk so much about distinction as unity, and the unity is the Logos. He introduced the concept of Theotokos ("god bearer"). Mary gave birth to a person, and that person was fully God.
5. Pope Leo in the West said it was one person, two natures (the orthodox position).
Council of Chalcedon
1. Declared there is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who is perfect God and perfect Man.
2. He consists of a soul and flesh (refuting Apolanarus).
3. These two natures are inseparable, indivisible, (refuting Nestorius), unconfused, unchanged (refuting Euticus).
4. Theotokos, according to the flesh, was confirmed.
1. A group of theologians writing between the Council of Nicaea and the Council of Constantinople who responded to Arian heresy and formulated the orthodox doctrine of the Trinity.
2. Basil the Great, Gregory of Nyssa and Gregory of Nazianzus are Greek theologians who work together to disassociate the unitarian connotations from "homoousious."
3. They drew a distinction between "ONE ESSENCE and THREE PERSONS".
1. Called "the grump at Bethlehem" -- prickly, not pastoral, essentially a scholar and a monk.
2. He popularized monasticism in the Latin West among educated widows.
3. He was well-versed in classical culture. He translated the Bible into Latin, the common language of the people (the VULGATE). This became the standard accepted Latin text in the Middle Ages.
4. He also wrote commentaries and treatises as well.
1. Moniker of St. John meaning "golden mouthed."
2. It refers to the saint's extraordinary preaching skills.
3. He confronted Empress Eudoxia from the pulpit, and she exiled him.
4. She called him back after an earthquake. She exiled him again, and he died in 407.
1. A prominent theologian during a time of peace (after Constantine's conversion), when the church was formulating its theology.
2. He was born in North Africa to a Christian mother, Monica, and a non-Christian father. He was disappointed in the philosophies he had been following.
3. Abrose, bishop of Milan, was his intellectual equal and answered his questions. He heard a child's voice in the garden saying, "Take and read." He reads the Bible and is converted.
4. He was released from addiction to worldly ambition and sex. On Easter in 387, he was baptized by Ambrose.
5. He then moved back to Africa to establish a monastic community. He is made a bishop by popular acclaim and became a very prolific writer.
City of God
1. In response to Manichaeism (the belief that humans have a rational and spiritual nature, which is imprisoned to body created by an evil demiurge), Augustine developed the doctrine of original sin, human will.
2. We were originally created with an orientation toward God and loving him and creation in proper proportions. When sin entered us, our will was no longer able to focus human intention and desire appropriately. We now desire ourselves first and foremost.
3. In City of God, Augustine sets forth two kinds of human beings -- those with divided wills and those who trust God's grace. The desires for sex and success is contrasted with the desire for God's glory.
4. Augustine explained evil as temporary and originating in the human (not permanent and necessary).
1. They split from the mainstream church because of concerns about the purity of the church and leaders who had compromised themselves during persecution.
2. They said the true church was the pure church, the bride of Christ without spot or wrinkle. (Augustine emphasized the parable of the "wheat and the tares" instead.)
3. The Donatists said the sacraments dispensed by tainted leaders are ineffectual. (Augustine said they belong to Christ, not the priests.)
4. Augustine also develops a theory of just war in response to the Donatists.
5. The suppression of the Donatists by force became a model for the future suppression of minorities in subsequent centuries in the church.
1. Pelagious taught that it was possible and mandatory for Christians to strive for perfection. (Augustine said perfection is not possible through human effort.)
2.Pelagius said there was an undertow of bad habits that IS reversible. (Augustin said we have inherited a bent, corrupted will from our first parents. We are dependent and helpless before God. When we are regenerated by the Holy Spirit, Augustine says, our progress is going to be more grace-filled than teeth-grinding effort.)
3. Augustine said: "Before the fall, it was possible not to sin. After the fall, it was not possible not to sin. In the New Creation, it will be not possible to sin."
4. Augustine sought to give full credit to God and to emphasize the pilgrim status of the Christian journey.
1. Used in the early church, it means "papa."
2. The title Pope was used early on, but it didn't refer to a single person, but only an affectionate reference to one's bishop.
3. Eventually the title was reserved only for the head bishops of Rome.
4. The Pope offered stability and peace and calmness and strength against the barbarians, and, as such, his power grew.
1. Benedict's Rule became the most common form of communal monasticism after the Roman empire crumbled.
2. It spread throughout Europe.
3. Benedictine monks are not simply withdrawn from culture.
4. They actually preserved the Greco-Roman culture -- copying manuscripts, etc.
daily office and other monastic spiritual disciplines
1. Tenth century reform started in monasteries, starting with Cluny (founded in 909), which grew to be as big as a small town (up to 3,000 people).
2. They emphasized important virtues (humility, moderation, forgiveness, service) that were desperately needed during the Middle Ages. There was a 12-step process to humility (fearing God -> loving God).
3. Community came before the individual advancement. Mutual service and ownership was stressed.
4. It shaped a distinct Christian identity (hours of prayer, etc.), bringing balance to one's life -- intentionally planning out when and how you work, eat, pray and sleep.
Turning point in Christian history, as the Church returned to its primary calling.
1. A clause added by the West to the Nicene Creed.
2. The Council of Toledo in 589 declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds equally from the Father and Son.
3. This really irritated those in the East and was one of the reasons for the Great Schism in 1054.
The person who taught the mystery of the Trinity using a shamrock, and brought the catholic faith to the people of Ireland.
Gregory the Great
1. A Pope who was a transitional figure between the Early Church and the Middle Ages. In 600, he ruled much of the world.
2. He was a monk who was a copious writer. His Pastoral Rule sets the standard for what a bishop should be... how to pastorally deal with different personalities, ailments of the soul, etc.
3. Yet, he raised troops to withstand the Lombards, mixing church and military power. He commissioned the first professional missionaries. Massive efforts were made to Christianize Europe from Arianism or paganism.
4. He contributes to Midieval piety by emphasizing the sacraments as mystical rites, the role of relics, the reality of saints and demons, etc.
1. 570-632. Born in Mecca, died in Medina.
2. Founder of Islam.
3. Regarded by Muslims as a prophet of God.
4. Teachings make up the Qu'ran, the Muslim holy book.
impact of Muslim conquests
1. They turned the attention of the Papacy from the East to the North.
2. Negative impact on trade and education. Western Europe became even more isolated from the sources of classical and Hellenistic education. The Byzantine empire in the East is what would preserve the education of the past. The Christians in North Europe become more isolated.
3. The number of Christians in 1500 and 500 is roughly equivalent because of Northern and Western European mission movements that offset the loss of significant regions of Palestine to Islam.
characteristics of medieval missions
1. Professional missionaries for the first time (monks, usually).
2. Commissioned by the Papacy, which took an active role and achieved great power.
3. Mass conversions were common as the Gospel spreads to Northern and Western Europe, as the missionaries take advantage of tribal superstitions (trial by ordeal).
4. Armed force was often used to expand the borders of the church. (Charlemagne did so through military conquest.)
1. A missionary in the Early Middle Ages to Germany.
2. Took advantage of tribal superstitions.
3. He courageously cut down the sacred oak tree of Thor. This trial by ordeal was seen as a conflict between their god and the missionary's God. Boniface went by unscathed, so they were convinced his God was stronger. He used the wood from the tree to build a chapel in honor of St. Peter.
4. Later, Boniface and his 50 helpers are martyred in 754 by the Frisians.
1. King of the Franks, Charles the Great.
2. Used armed force to expand the borders of the church. A great reformer too, setting up monastic schools.
3. Conquered much of Western Europe through military conquest.
4. Great patron of literature and learning.
feudalism and simony
1. In the Early Middle Ages, in the West, there was social chaos, declining trade, disappearing money, barbarian invasions, Islam taking hold.
2. The only source and expression of wealth is land, which was divided between lords who distributed it to their vassals.
3. The church tried to own land to gain power. The bishops became feudal lords and participated in the constant warfare.
4. Bishops attained their diocese by purchasing land or making deals with feudal lords. Buying and selling ecclesiastical office (simony) resulted.
5. Priests had kids out of wedlock. They became lords and inherited land.
1. A collection of rulings by early Popes and councils put forward by Pope Nicholas I in the mid 800's. Some are true. Some are forged.
2. They say the early church gave the Pope more power than traditionally assumed -- more than civil magistrates, more than kings and other secular rulers.
3. They said the Pope didn't need an archbishop; he could deal with bishops directly, including deposing them.
4. One of them is "The Donation of Constantine," a forged document in which the emperor Constantine gives the empire to the Papacy.
1. A monastery where reform began in the 10th century near France and Germany's modern-day border.
2. As big as a small town (up to 3,000 people), including a church, dormitory, stables, kitchen, bakery.
3. They kept Benedict's rule. It emphasized important virtues (humility, moderation, forgiveness, service) that were desperately needed during the Middle Ages. There was a 12-step process to humility (fearing God -> loving God).
4. Community came before the individual advancement. Mutual service was stressed. There was no private ownership. We don't defer to blood relations, unlike feudal society, with its clans. We defer to God only. We don't defer to social status either.
5. It shaped a distinct Christian identity (hours of prayer, etc.). It marinated people in God's Word (encouraging Scripture memorization - Rules of Pachomius).
5. The renaissance began to spread into England and Rome via the Cluny monks -- a return to the ideals of the early church -- virtue development, Scriptural study, etc. Community, charity, forgiveness, humility, service, prayer, memorization, etc.
1. A ceremony in which a person formally receives the authority and symbols of an office.
2. Who has the right of Investiture -- to invest bishops and abbots with the symbols of their office?
3. That person controls the appointment of clergy because they cannot perform duties of their office without investiture.
4. This was a power struggle between Popes and Kings in the early Middle Ages (600-1054).
John of Damascus and the iconoclastic controversy
1. A monk near Jerusalem who distinguished between veneration of icons and worship (which is only for God).
2. He said paintings can lead our minds to God. He said if we truly believe Christ was fully human, then he can be depicted without breaking the 2nd commandment.
3. He said veneration of images is like veneration of the Gospel texts.
4. One reason the East and West split in 1054 was over images. The East venerated images and the Second Council of Nicea said veneration is appropriate.
1. Church established in the Byzantine Empire after the split from the Roman Catholic Church.
2. Greek and Russian Orthodox Churches descend from this.
3. They reject the authority of the Pope and venerate icons.
1. A series of military expeditions from 1100 to 1300 by Westrn European Christians.
2. Religious mission -- recover the holy land, Palestine, and particularly, the Holy Sepulcher, the church built around the tomb or Christ by Constantine, currently under control of Islam.
3. To gain remission for sin and purgatory. The crusaders thought they'd get less time in purgatory.
4. Economically and politically, there is hope for plunder and greater territory.
Francis of Assisi
1. Founder of the Franciscans (a Mendicant order in the early 13th century).
2. He practiced poverty, humility, love and simplicity, and he preached the Good News.
3. He had the Poor Claires (the feminine order of the Franciscans).
4. His movement was blessed by Pope Innocent III (who had a dream about a person rebuilding the church).
5. St. Francis preached to the birds. He is said to have received the stigmata at the end of his life.
1. Led by St. Dominic, in the 13th century, they existed to preach to the ends of the earth.
2. The focus was on study more than caring for the poor.
3. Thomas Aquinas comes out of this order.
4. The Inquisitors also came from this order. In the Inquisition, people who believed heresy were burned at the stake.
1. 12th century, father of scholasticism.
2. He combined faith and reason (step away from Augustine and toward Aquinas).
3. He believed no part of the faith was beyond rational exposition. (Everything was congruent with logic, even the Trinity.)
4. He wrote the Prosogion, an ontological argument for the existence of God. (God is the being than which none greater can be conceived. So God must exist.)
Cur Deus homo
1. A work of Anselm meaning "Why the God-man?" or "Why was the incarnation necessary?"
2. It presented a substitutionary or penal theory about the atonement.
3. This is in contrast to the ransom theory, in which God is seen as paying Satan to take the captives back.
4. In contrast, he says we have dishonored God's, and only God can pay it back. But it's also a human sin, so it needs to be a human to pay for this sin.
1. The greatest dialectician of the 12th century -- a thrice condemned Arian Pelagian Nestorian relativist -- the forerunner of modern liberalism.
2. He tested church doctrine via dialect. (All tenets of the faith should be subjected to logical examination -- "do not believe lightly.")
3. He was heretical because he was modalistic (God as three modes), Pelagian (no inherited sin nature) and Nestorian (seeing Jesus as a good example, an Arian idea). He also didn't believe in universal realities.
4. He had many followers. His work, "Sic et Non" ("Yes and No"), set forth apparent contradictions between the Bible and the church fathers, with no attempt to harmonize them. Bernard of Clairvaux condemned him for undermining people's faith.
Bernard of Clairvaux
1. Appointed by the Pope as the priest of the Second Crusade.
2. He attacked Abelard and worked for reform in the church.
3. He stripped the Pope of temporal powers. He advocated simplicity for monks.
4. He fought to preserve Augustinian thought against the rising Pelagian threat.
1. A school of thought in medieval Europe that used logic and reason to support Christian belief.
2. Sought to synthesize the beliefs and values of Christianity with the logical rigor of Greek philosophy.
3. rational attempt to penetrate the revealed data of faith through a logical apparatus.
4. Associated with St. Thomas Aquinas.
1. A 13th century scholar who is ranked among the top minds of the last 2,000 years.
2. His teacher, Fat Albert, was a pioneer of combining Aristotle with Christianity.
3. He saw philosophy as a separate domain that serves supernatural truth. Theology is the queen. Philosophy is the hand maiden.
sacramental theology in the High Middle Ages
1. Aquinas said sacraments are divinely ordained vehicles which confer grace, which have been given to the church to administer, and which are necessary for salvation.
2. baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, penance, extreme unction, ordination and marriage.
3. Each sacrament has matter (bread, wine) and form (words of institution).
5. "ex opera operato" ("by the act duly performed" or "there is working by the works"). If a sacrament is properly performed, grace is automatically imparted. But the quality of grace received corresponds to the heart of the individual. The sorrier you are for sin, the more grace you get.
6. They thought baptism brought regeneration. Original sin and previous sins are pardoned, and grace is given to resist sin.
7. The Eucharist is now seen under the doctrine of transubstantiation. At the words of consecration of the priest, the accidens of the bread and wine remain the same, while the substance becomes the actual body and blood of Jesus.
1. Saved from serious childhood illness by St. Francis of Assisi and so became a Franciscan.
2. He wrote "Journey of the Mind to God."
3. He said knowledge of the soul and God are the two most important things - something later echoed by Calvin.
4. He developed the doctrine of illumination -- true knowledge comes through the work of the Holy Spirit.
5. He said theology is mystical, not only intellectual, so the contemplative life is important.
Why should you study the history of Christianity?
So we do not repeat our mistakes. As early as MARCION, people were saying Jesus only appeared human. He also said the God of the OT and the God of the NT were vastly different. He failed to recognize progressive revelation and how to read the OT. He oversimplifies the problem of love and justice in God -- failing to see both love and justice in the death of Jesus. He views grace as antithetical to creation, rather than the completion of creation (as it really is, according to Irenaeus).
We also find examples to emulate, such as IRENAEUS, a theologian of unity:
* The unity of God (creator AND redeemer), not two different gods (OT and NT).
* The unity of Jesus (God AND human but still one person).
* The unity of human history (one singular divine purposeful plan).
* The unity of revelation (OT AND NT all belong to one united revelation of God).
* The unity of human beings (body AND soul will both rise).
* The unity of Christian faith throughout the world (whether in France or Rome).
* The unity and continuity of the church (united way of life, same one God we serve).
What biblical assumptions should guide a Christian's interpretation of history?
Should a person's belief in divine providence enable him/her to judge God's purposes in historical events? Why or why not?
In Rome in 144, Marcion provides the first canon - Paul's ten letters and an edited version of the Gospel of Luke. The church responds to this heretic with their own list. Heresy propelled the church forward again.
Describe how to interpret historical texts well
Describe the way in which the historical context of a particular period (e.g., 100-313, 313-600, 600-1054, 1054-1274) influences Christianity and vice-versa.
Constantine's new order led to cooperation between Christianity and culture. Rather than separating themselves, Christians began baptizing and incorporating secular culture. Even today's Catholic church contains Greco-Roman cultural elements.
Christian reactions to Constantine in the 4th century:
Graceful and uncritical -- so thankful that they will not criticize the emperor.
Flee to remote places -- taking up the monastic life. Monasticism became popular because Christianity was changing (less rigorous ethical standards, etc.).
Break away from the majority church -- insisting it's not the true church. This takes place in North Africa because of the issue of restoration of lapsed clergy, saying baptisms and ordinations performed by those who had once disavowed the faith are invalid.
Pagan reaction -- seeing the emperors as pagan because of their unChristian behavior.
Critical but engaged -- The most outstanding Christian leaders didn't become schismatic, but they maintained a critical stance (not baptizing culture, not expecting the empire and the religion to merge.) This is the golden age of patristic culture (Ambrose, Augustine, etc.).
The U.S. is much like Rome, but the church today is very different (not spreading rapidly, not willing to suffer, etc.)
What important theology, practices, or emphases can the early church offer Christians or the church today? Why?
Good lesson to Protestants who so easily splinter into many groups over much lesser issues. They even rebuked each other without losing the unity. This is without parallel in the ancient world.
What virtues has your study of the early and medieval church encouraged you to focus on? Why? What has your study encouraged you to repent of? Why?
unity of the church...
How has your study made you more discerning about ministry practices today (worship, evangelism, preaching, seeking justice, etc.)?
Given what the early church says about church leaders (priest/bishop/abbot), how has your understanding of pastoral identity been shaped? E.g., What is the primary goal of a pastor's work? What challenges does a pastor face? What authority does a pastor have in the community of believers?
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