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102 terms

Abnormal behavior exam 1

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If you decide to stand on your desk when your professor is lecturing, your conduct would be outside the stated
norms
He believes that the whole concept of mental illness is invalid and is a myth.
Szasz
John's family had a difficult time understanding why he chose to wear an overcoat, a hat, and gloves during the summer. This is an example of which of the four D's?
deviance
A group of friends decided to "let off some steam" and went to the local auto junkyard everyday to destroy some cars. This is not considered therapy for all of the following EXCEPT: B
A. while there is a sufferer, there is no healer.
B. there is a series of systematic contacts between the sufferer and the inanimate objects.
C. there is not a series of systematic contacts between healer and sufferer.
D. there is not a trained healer.
He stated "therapists are not in agreement as to their goals or aims... it seems as though the field is completely chaotic and divided."
Rodgers
He stated that all forms of therapy have three key features
Frank
The first site of asylum reform is believed to have been at _____________ in Paris.
La Bicêtre
He was a Viennese physician who developed the theory of psychoanalysis.
Freud
He is considered the founder of the modern study of psychopathology.
Weyer
On any given day, at least ______ individuals with severe psychological disturbances receive treatment of any kind.
100,000
Before the 1950s, psychotherapy was offered only by
Psychiatrists
Only ___ percent of persons with severe psychological disturbances currently receive treatment of any kind.
40%
___________ is the total number of cases in the population during a given time period.
Prevalence
This is a research method in which the experimenter produces abnormal-like behavior in laboratory participants and then conducts experiments on the participants.
analogue experiment
This study observes the same participants on many occasions over a long period of time.
longitudinal
The three main biological treatments include all of the following EXCEPT: A
A. psychotherapy.
B. drug therapy.
C. electroconvulsive therapy.
D. psychosurgery.
This disorder is marked by violent emotional outbursts, memory loss, suicidal thinking, involuntary body movements, and absurd beliefs.
Huntington's disease
The biological model is best rooted in:
Medicine
Kevin was having a difficult time engaging in therapy and frequently changed subjects when his therapist brought up anything about his childhood. Kevin's difficulty with therapy may best be explained by:
resistance
Freud would explain an overweight individual as possibly being fixated in which stage of psychosexual development?
oral
Jane is overweight and her health is suffering. She explains to her doctor that "food is her only happiness in life and she deserves to be happy." Jane's explanation is an example of:
rationalization
He argued that in order to feel happy and function effectively, people must develop a positive sense of self-efficacy.
Bandura
When the dog salivates to the sound of the bell, the salivation is the:
conditioned response
The behavioral model began in laboratories where psychologists were running experiments on:
conditioning
_________________________ is a new cognitive therapy that helps clients to accept many of their problematic thoughts rather than judge them, act on them, or try fruitlessly to change them.
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy
This therapy helps people recognize and change their faulty thinking processes.
cognitive therapy
He was one of two clinicians who proposed that cognitive processes are at the center of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.
Rodgers
This therapy encourages the client to accept responsibility for their lives and to live with greater meaning and values.
existential therapy
He developed a type of therapy in the 1950s which guided clients toward self-recognition and self-acceptance.
Perls
They believe that people must have an accurate awareness of themselves and live meaningfully in order to be psychologically well adjusted.
Existentialists
This approach seeks to address the pressures of being a woman in Western society.
gender-sensitive therapies
According to estimates, there are now between 500,000 and ____ million self-help groups in the United States alone.
3
Proponents of the _________________ perspective argue that clinical theorists should concentrate on those broad forces that operate directly on an individual as he or she moves through life.
family-social
The MMPI consists of more than _____ self-statements that make up 10 clinical scales, on which the individual can score from 0 to:
500;120
The most widely used personality inventory is the
MMPI
This is the measure of the consistency of test or research results.
reliability
Mental Retardation would be listed on which of the following axes?
II
Personality disorders would be listed on which of the following axes?
II
He developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior in 1883.
Kraepelin
A number of studies suggest that more than ___ percent of patients actually seem to get worse because of therapy.
5
_____________ is a disorder found among members of Indian tribes in Central and South America and is most likely to occur in infants and young children.
Susto
_____________ was a disorder once common among Algonquin Indian hunters where they believed in a supernatural monster than ate human beings and became cannibalistic.
Windigo
In any given year, around ____ percent of the adult population develop one of the anxiety disorders at some point in their lives.
29
The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems is known as:
basic irrational assumptions
Julie was prescribed the following benzodiazepine for her generalized anxiety disorder.
Ativan
In some studies, African Americans and Hispanic Americans report having ____ percent more specific phobias than do white Americans.
50
Surveys indicate that ___ percent of people in the United States experience a social phobia in a given year.
7.1
______________________ is a behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread.
systematic desensitization
Kevin suffers from ______________ and is afraid to leave the house and travel to public places or other locations where escape might be difficult for him.
agoraphobia
Around ___ percent of all people in the United States suffer from either panic disorder with or panic disorder without agoraphobia.
2.8%
In recent years, the benzodiazepine _______________ has proved effective in the treatment of panic disorder.
Xanax
Between __________ percent of people in the United States and other countries throughout the world suffer from OCD in any given year.
1 and 2
As many as __________ percent develop OCD at some point during their lives.
3
This is an ego defense mechanism in which people suppress an unacceptable desire by taking on a lifestyle that expresses the opposite desire.
reaction formation
These are a group of hormones which are released by the adrenal glands at times of stress.
corticosteroids
The hypothalamus activates these two important systems when our brain interprets a situation as dangerous.
the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system
This is the system of glands located throughout the body that help control important activities such as growth and sexual activity.
the endocrine system
Overall, about half of all cases of PTSD improve within ____ months.
6
Sarah was the victim of an assault two weeks ago. She has been experiencing nightmares, flashbacks, cannot go out by herself, and has not been sleeping well. Her most likely diagnosis is:
acute stress disorder
We now know that as many as ___ percent of all Vietnam veterans suffered an acute or posttraumatic stress disorder.
29%
For adults, the most stressful life event on the Social Adjustment Rating Scale is:
the death of a spouse
Excessive activity of the neurotransmitter ___________________ apparently contributes to slowdowns of the immune system.
norepinephrine
High blood pressure is ___ percent more common among African Americans than among white Americans.
43%
Which of the following examples would be considered to be abnormal, because it is
dysfunctional?
a college student who parties so much that he cannot go to class
Hippocrates's contribution to the development of our understanding of mental illness was the
view that such conditions were the result of:
natural causes
Part of the downfall of moral therapy was that:
it did not work for everyone
"Many people are not aware of the sources of their abnormality, because abnormality often
arises from unconscious psychological processes; such people need insight about those
processes." Who would agree most strongly with this statement?
Freud
One cause of the increase in homeless individuals in recent decades has been the:
policy of deinstitutionalization
Researchers who apply different therapy procedures uniformly to a large number of people
are most likely using the:
experimental method
A researcher finds a strong positive correlation between ratings of life stress and symptoms of
depression. Therefore, the researcher may be confident that:
as life stress increases, so does depression.
Seligman's study in which he created learned helplessness in the lab is an example of a(n)
______ study.
analogue
The model of abnormality that concentrates on thinking is the:
cognitive model
The treatment a patient would be least likely to receive is:
psychosurgery
Infants tebd to do things that feel good. This is in accord with what Freud called:
the pleasure principle
A child's mother is taking a chocolate pudding out of the refrigerator. Which of the
following would suggest most strongly that the ego is successfully managing the id?
the child waits for her mother to leave the room, takes a cup of pudding, and sneaks away.
What we would call "conscience" is most like what Freud would call the:
superego
The model most likely to use terms such as "resistance" and "transference" is the ______
model.
psychodynamic
The form of therapy that helps clients recognize errors in logic, and try out new
interpretations of events is:
cognitive
A family therapist might say that helicopter parents (those who are overly involved in their
children's lives) are displaying ______ family pattern.
an enmeshed
Providing stress-reduction seminars for local businesses in a community is an example of:
primary prevention
Because people who are manic have very elevated moods, a new test for mania includes
questions about how happy the person feels and how often he or she laughs. This test has:
face validity
A clinician has developed a test that requires test takers to tell stories about a series of
pictures of city skylines. Most likely, this new test is a:
projective test
Compared to projective tests, personality inventories:
have higher validity
A cluster of symptoms that go together and define a mental disorder is called a:
syndrome
Axis III includes:
any relevant general medical condition.
Which of the following statements reflects the most current scientific knowledge about the
role of GABA in anxiety responses?
We are not sure whether anxiety causes GABA inactivity or GABA inactivity causes
anxiety.
An intense, persistent, and irrational fear that is accompanied by a compelling desire to
avoid the object of the fear to the point of interfering with the life of the person is called:
Phobic disorder
Harry is terrified of the snakes that his 8-year-old son brings home. During his therapy, his
therapist demonstrated how to handle them. This is a form of therapy based on:
modeling
Fear differs from anxiety in that:
fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more general.
The most common mental disorders in the United States are the:
Anxiety disorders
Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by:
maladaptive assumptions
The drug treatment that is most effective in treating panic disorder is like that used to treat:
depression
Panic disorder develops most often in:
younger women
Religious rituals and superstitious behavior (such as not stepping on cracks) would be
considered a compulsive behavior:
when they interfere with daily function and cause distress.
Which of the following is the best example of a stress response?
horror, dread, and panic
Activation of the parasympathetic division of the nervous system leads to ______, while
activation of the sympathetic division of the nervous system leads to ______.
overall calming; general arousal
Those most likely to experience substantial stress symptoms after the terrorist attacks in the
U.S. on September 11, 2001:
lived near New York City.
Current research suggests that those who experience severe stress:
have abnormal levels of norepinephrine and cortisol.
A flash flood hits a small Appalachian community. Those providing critical incident stress
debriefing intervention would:
provide short-term counseling services.
Researchers have found a link between Type A personality and:
coronary heart disease
Almost every night, Cara wakes up terrified and screaming for the boys to get off her. Two
years later she still can't get the gang rape out of her mind. The fear, anxiety, and depression
are ruining her life. This is an example of:
a posttraumatic stress disorder.
A person with posttraumatic stress disorder who refuses to talk about it is:
experiencing avoidance