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APUSH Midterm- American Pageant Chapters 1-22
Terms in this set (296)
Bering Land Bridge
Most likely theory of people getting to Americas. 14- 12,000 years ago people followed migratory herds from Asia.
"three sister" farming
corn, beans, and squash
The Norse in the New World
Landed in Greenland, ric
A conqueror from Spain who came in service of God, but was really looking for gold & glory
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494)
Pope Alexander VI drew a line on the map dividing the New World lands between Spain & Portugal (Spain got the much bigger chunk)
Basically slavery - it allowed the Spanish govt. to give Indians to certain colonists in return for the colonists' promise to Christianize the Indians.
From relationships between Spanish men & Indian women
Battle of Acoma/New Mexico (1599)
Spanish proclaimed the province of New Mexico after Acoma
Established throughout New Spain (St Augustine, FL; San Antonio (the Alamo); San Diego
Popé's Rebellion (or Pueblo Revolt)
-Native rebels destroyed every Catholic Church in New Mexico, killed hundreds, and drove out settlers. (This is also called the Pueblo Revolt.)
-Popé was one of the many medicine men who had been arrested by the Spanish in a crackdown on native religion.
-Took the Spanish over 50 years to retake the area.
"The Black Legend"
Idea that the Spanish only tortured and butchered the Indians, stole gold, and brought disease. (development of U.S. culture may be benefit)
"push" factors encouraging English migration
religious freedom (Puritans) , taxes, etc
Roanoke Colony (1585)
John White led 116 settlers to the island in 1585. He left for England to get supplies and wasn't able to
return until 1590.
Virginia Co./Jamestown (1607)
-Near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay, (where they were attacked by Indians), then up the James River to settle at Jamestown.
-Easily defended, with deep-water frontage on a peninsula; good natural resources
-Swampy, malaria-carrying mosquitos; brackish water
introduced work ethic to Jamestown colony, sanitation, diplomat to local Native American tribes; had fought Spanish and Turks
lacked unity and Powhatan lost control over his brother. Also, Powhatan's "wait and see" tactic after inflicting a blow on the English didn't work well
was captured by the English and eventually married John Rolfe
Brought tobacco to Virginia, was killed by Indians in the Indian Massacre of 1622, led by Opechancanough during the Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622-32)
First Anglo-Powhatan War (1622-32)
-Started when Lord De La Warr, New Virginia governor, brought new settlers to VA and implemented a harsh military regime. His "Irish tactics" included raiding villages, confiscating provisions, and torching cornfields.
- Ended when Pocahontas was captured by the English and eventually married John Rolfe.
Second Anglo-Powhatan War (1622-32)
-Indian Massacre of 1622 in which John Rolfe was killed
-Ended w/ peace treaty that banished the Chesapeake Indians from white areas of settlement.
Third Anglo-Powhatan War (1644-
Ended upon the death of elderly Opechancanough, Powhatan's
Powhatan's brother; led war against Jamestown; killed 347 settlers, but at that time there was already a large enough number that it had no significant effect on them
joint-stock company/corporate colony
-group of investors put up the capital needed (in return for shares in the company) in order to finance expensive expeditions to the New World. The goal was to make a quick profit. (They weren't in it for long-term settlement.)
-charter granted the Englishmen the same rights they would have enjoyed at home.
colony under the direct supervision of the monarch
colony owned by an individual or family
believed God is all-powerful and good, in predestination, and in "visible saints"
wanted to "purify" (de-Catholicize) the Anglican church
-Puritans who wanted to break away from the Church of England
-seen by James I as a threat to his rule
-Fewer than 50% of the 102 Puritans (to future MA) were these
those who had had an intense personal conversion experience with God.
Mayflower Compact (1620)
First agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Plymouth Colony (1620)
1st successful colony in New England because of religious oppression in England
Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630)
One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Puritans were non-Separatists (moderates). The settlement was much larger, and it had a charter from the king.[Plymouth & MA Bay merged in 1691.] Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located.
John Winthrop's "city on a hill"
-Massachusetts Bay Colony
-Gov. or Deputy Gov. of Mass. Bay for 19 years. He wanted Mass. Bay to serve as a moral example to the rest of the world.
"The Great Migration"
Puritans who were persecuted by the state and those suffering hard times due to the downturn in the woolen trade went primarily to Barbados & the West Indies, only about 20,000 came to New England
Protestant Work Ethic
The calling to do God's work on Earth. They enjoyed simple pleasures: eating, drinking, singing, etc. "Blue Laws" helped to repress social behaviors that were deemed immoral by the Church (like PDA).
The Pequot War (1637)
-Started by confrontations between settlers pushing into the Connecticut River valley and the local Pequot tribe.
-The Narragansett, a powerful tribe who manufactured wampum and provided beaver pelts to the colonists, sided w/ the English colonists.
-The colonists won using bloody tactics that alarmed the Narragansett.
Family that founded state/ city
Maryland Toleration Act
Act that was passed in Maryland that guaranteed toleration to all Christians, regardless of sect but not to those who did not believe in the divinity of Jesus. Though it did not sanction much tolerance, the act was the first seed that would sprout into the first amendment, granting religious freedom to all.
Connecticut/Thomas Hooker and the Fundamental Orders of CT
Thomas Hooker founded Hartford. Its "Fundamental Orders" of 1639 was essentially a modern constitution. New Haven colony was founded in 1638. The two were forcefully merged by King Charles II in 1662.
Rhode Island/Roger Williams
Williams was an extreme separatist. He challenged the legality of the Mass. Bay colony's charter, because land was being taken from the Indians. Also, he denied the authority of civil government to regulate religious behavior. Founded RI; built the first Baptist church; established freedom of religion (including Jews, Catholics, and Quakers); and exercised simple manhood suffrage (later this was narrowed by a property qualification). Obtained a charter in 1644.
New Netherland (New Amsterdam)
The Dutch West India Co. established the colony in 1623-24 for quick profit in the fur trade. Located in what is now Manhattan. Aristocratic.
vast estates, were granted to promoters who could settle at least 50 people on them (colonies)
8 supporters to whom King Charles II of England gave a grant to establish a colony that included land that later became SC
Barbados Slave Code (1661)
Gave masters virtually complete control over their slaves including the right to inflict vicious punishments for even slight infractions.
places Indians gathered to learn about God and English culture by missionaries
King Philip's War (1676-77)
Intertribal unity led to many
successful attacks on frontier
VA House of Burgesses
america's 1st representation legislative assembly, made laws for Jamestown
Bacon's Rebellion (1676)
-Nathaniel Bacon=A 29-yr. old planter from VA, who led a rebellion against Gov. Berkeley
-Goal= To convince Berkeley to help protect frontier farms, which had been attacked by Indians.
- End= The burning of Jamestown and the death of Bacon from dysentery. Also, the routing of a garrison of rebels and the hanging of dozens.
Pennsylvania: William Penn
founder of Pennsylvania, set about securing a grant from the king for a colony for Quakers, thought Indians should be paid for land
Quakers: New Jersey/Delaware
-West New Jersey was sold to a group of Quakers in 1674. East New Jersey was also a Quaker colony. The two Jerseys were combined in 1702 by the crown.
-Many Quakers lived in Delaware, which was administered by PA until the Revolution.
Dominion of New England: Charles II, Gov. Edmund Andros (1686)
-Bolstering colonial defense
-Promoting efficiency in the administration of the English Navigation Laws (preventing colonists from trading with countries other than England) included all of New England, NY, NJ. Was broken apart b/c Gov. Andros was seen as appalling to to citizens.
Glorious Revolution (1688)
-James II was out and William & Mary (Protestants) were in! The Dominion was broken apart.
-Andros tried to flee (dressed in women's clothing), but was captured and shipped back to England.
Georgia: James Oglethorpe
English leader who founded the colony of Georgia as a place where debtors from England could begin new lives
African slaves too expensive @ first, would work for years in exchange for "freedom dues" (land, corn, or clothing).
The headright system
Each man received 50 acres of land for paying his own passage to the colonies and an additional 50 acres for anyone else he brought with him.
The Middle Passage
-The slaves' journey across the Atlantic.
-About 20% of the slaves died. The rest were auctioned in places like Newport, RI, and Charleston, SC.
Stono Revolt (1739)
-Slaves from SC tried to march to Spanish FL but were stopped by the local militia after burning 7 plantations and killing about 45 white people.
-Laws were passed in the aftermath to restrict slaves.
German and Scots-Irish immigration
-German= fled religious persecution, economic oppression, and war; no loyalty to the British crown; Protestant (Lutheran)
-Scots-Irish=lowlanders moved to Ireland, where their religion (Presbyterianism) clashed with Catholicism.
Paxton Boys March/Conestoga Massacre (1764)
-Protestors were upset about PA's policy on Indians in the aftermath of the F & I War and Pontiac's Rebellion.
-They killed 20 Susquehannock Indians in the Conestoga Massacre. Ben Franklin talked them down by promising their grievances would be considered by the legislature.
The Regulator Movement (NC, 1765-71)
Small but nasty insurrection against corruption in the colony's affairs and high taxes (unsuccessful, but considered a precursor to the American Revolution).
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Molasses Act (1733)
British law that imposed a tax of six pence per gallon on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British colonies into North American colonies. Parliament passed it to squelch colonial trade with the French W. Indies
Harvard/Yale/William & Mary
Halfway Covenant (1662)
the law passed to make it easier for the less religious children of the Puritans to become baptized members of the Puritan church.
Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692)
Adolescent girls claimed to have been bewitched by older women. Jealousy, ergot poisoning are possible motives for cases.
Great Awakening: Jonathan Edwards/George Whitefield (1730s-40s)
-Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
-"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"
-Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
The Zenger Trial (1735)
John Peter Zenger attacked the royal governor in his newspaper. Freedom of the Press established (1735)
Early world wars: King William's, Queen Anne's, King George's
-British colonists fought French fur trappers (coureurs de bois) and both sides recruited Indian allies and practiced guerilla warfare (no standing armies).
-Britain, France, Spain The Spanish raided SC and the French & Indians attacked MA and NY frontier towns.
French-made colonies in Canada
French & Indian War (1754 -63)
conflict between France and Great Britain over land in North America
Geo. Washington/Ft. Necessity
-his family held some of the "shaky legal holdings" in the Ohio Country.
-the French surrounded the outpost and forced the Virginians to surrender after a 10-hr siege.
- Plan to capture Ft. Duquesne with a force of 2,000.
-Artillery slowed the expedition; no road, so one had to be created, Braddock killed.
Help to establish British victory over French -Fran. & Ind. War
fall of Quebec and Montreal (1754-63)
In a sense, the history of the United States began with this.
Albany Congress/Albany Plan of Union/Franklin: "join or die" (1754)
-Purpose: To keep the Iroquois loyal to the British and to achieve greater colonial unity.
- Ben Franklin: "Join or Die" propaganda served as the "leading spirit" of the meeting
-The 7 delegates approved Franklin's "Plan of Union" for common defense, but then the colonial assemblies turned down the idea.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa rebelled (with help from remaining French fur traders). His forces overran all but 3 British posts west of the Appalachians, killing about 2,000 people. [He was killed in 1769 by a rival.]
British Proclamation line of 1763
English law enacted after French and Indian War which forbade the colonists from settling beyond the Appalachian Mountains. It helped spark the American revolution.
idea that the colonies benefited by being left alone, without too much British interference
acquiring wealth to benefit the mother country
The Navigation Laws (starting in 1651)
Called for ships' crews to be a majority colonial or British, and for goods exported or imported to the colonies to be in English or colonial vessels. Duties were established for most goods. Ineffective; smuggling common.
Sugar Act (1764)
-Britain wanted to pay debt from Fr. & Indian War.
- Act halved the duty on foreign sugar imported from the West Indies (modifying the 6 pence tax from the Molasses Act of 1733)
Quartering Act (1765)
required colonists to house British soldiers
Currency Act (1751, 1764)
-Intended to make New England colonists (and eventually all colonists) pay for goods in hard currency (gold & silver).
-Americans didn't like that hard currency was leaving the colonies.
Stamp Act (1765)
-Taxes proposed for all legal documents, newspapers, games, etc.; the idea was to generate revenue.
-Colonists met this with opposition, storming tax collectors' homes and burning effigies of tax collectors.
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
"no taxation without representation"; only colonial assemblies were supposed to tax!
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act. Engaged both in tarring and feathering customs officials and nonimportation. Organized by Sam Adams.
Declaratory Act (1766)
Reaffirmed Parliament's right to make laws that were binding in the colonies. Ignored b/c of repeal of the Stamp Act.
Townshend Acts (1767)
-Light import duties on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea.
-Indirect internal tax, paid at American ports.
- the act of not importing or using certain goods
-used by colonists during Townshend Acts
Boston Massacre (1770)
-Mob gathered; snowballs and shells thrown; soldiers fire on crowd.
-Crispus Attucks and four others killed.
-Sam Adams and Paul Revere made this into propaganda.
Committees of Correspondence
Townshend Tea Act (1773)
-The tea duty (3 pence per pound) was to keep the British E. India Co. from going bankrupt.
-Even with the tax, the E. India Co.'s tea was effectively cheaper than smuggled Dutch tea.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
Result of Townshend Tea Act. 342 chests dumped by the Sons of Liberty (about $1 million in value today).
Intolerable (Coercive) Acts (1774)
-Boston Port Act: closed port until tea (from Boston Tea Party) was paid for.
-Restrictions on town meetings; MA charter nullified; MA placed under martial law.
Quebec Act (1774)
-Quebec territory extended southward; French allowed to keep their religion and customs but were denied a representative assembly.
-Many feared that this marked the end of popular assemblies & jury trials.
-Many Americans had land claims in territory that was now considered "Quebec."
First Continental Congress
Decided on the Suffolk Resolves, which denounced the Intolerable Acts; wrote a Declaration of Rights.
Lexington & Concord (Apr. 1775)
-The British goal was to capture a perceived arsenal at Concord (weapons & supplies had been hidden, though).
-Shots were fired; 8 American militiamen killed at Lexington.
-The Brits continued on to Concord, then turned around toward Boston (Many more deaths on
Ft. Ticonderoga (May 1775)
Ethan Allen & Benedict Arnold captured the British garrison; gunpowder & artillery was secured for use in Boston. Henry Knox brought the goods back to Boston.
Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775)
-Colonists seized the hill and held it against a British attack until they ran out of powder. The British then took the hill.
-Boston occupied until British evacuation of 3/17/76 (thanks to Ft. Ticonderoga artillery).
Second Continental Congress (1775)
-Delegates drafted new appeals to Britain (the Olive Branch Petition was sent in July -more on this later).
-Raise money to create an army & navy.
-Washington selected to head the army (served w/o pay, yet kept a careful expense record).
Olive Branch Petition
Professed American loyalty to the Crown. King George declared the colonies to be in open rebellion and threatened to hang the traitors.
Attack on Canada/Benedict Arnold's March (Fall 1775)
-Americans erroneously believed that the French were restive under the British.
-Montgomery conquered Montreal, then joined Arnold at Quebec. Montgomery was then killed, Arnold wounded. The army was forced to retreat, back the way Montgomery had come.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense (Jan. 1776)
- Message: America should separate from Britain; Republican government is good.
- Aimed @ common people b/c Paine believed common
people should have a more active part in govt.
- Americans identified with message since colonists already had experience in Republican government due to town meetings, committees of correspondence, etc.
The Declaration of Independence (1776)
Washington's defeat at Long Island; success at Trenton (1776)
-Army forced to retreat when the British attacked Long Island. W. moved his forces south
-Washington's success on Dec. 26, 1776 (Trenton) boosted morale.
Battle of Saratoga/Gen. Burgoyne's defeat/Franco-American alliance (1777)
-Burgoyne floundered and was defeated at the Battle of Saratoga.
-Battle revived the American cause.
-A Treaty of Alliance provided gunpowder and navy to America from France
-Treaty promised Home rule & independence to America
-Spain, Holland; many others in the "Armed Neutrality" joined Franco-American Alliance
Gen. Greene vs. Gen. Cornwallis in the Carolinas/British surrender at Yorktown (Oct. 19, 1781)
-Greene= American, Cornwallis= English
Assuming Britain would control the seas, Cornwallis inadvertently placed himself in a corner. While the Americans blocked his retreat by land, the French moved in to block his retreat by sea.
Iroquois side w/Brits but lose land in the Treaty of Ft. Stanwix (1784)
Sided w/ British b/c they believed the Brits would stop American expansion to the West (e.g. Joseph Brandt, Mohawk leader).
George Rogers Clark
A lieutenant colonel in Virginia militia, seized 3 British forts in the West with only 175 men.
John Paul Jones
Most famous American naval officer. He said, "I have not yet begun to fight," shortly before his ship, the Bonhomme Richard, sank due to British attack. [He and his crew perished]
Women's roles during the American Revolution
- Collected supplies and money for the Continental Army.
- Jobs in the army: seamstresses, cooks, maids, nurses
- Sometimes served as soldiers (rare)
- "Molly Pitcher"
- Women got short end of the stick w/ pensions and recognition
Articles of Confederation (1777; ratified 1781)
Served as governing doc. for may years. The states were essentially sovereign because they coined their own money, erected tariff barriers, and raised their own troops.
The Newburgh Conspiracy (1783)
Mutinous soldiers demanded back pay. Washington quelled the rebellion by giving his "I have grown blind in the service of my country" speech. [Shortly afterward, Congress approved a plan to pay the soldiers.]
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Treaty Between England and the Colonies, formally ended the American Revolutionary War
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
- The land from the Old Northwest was divided into townships of 6 sq. mi. A section of each town was set aside for a school.
- When a territory had 60,000 people, it could become a state. No slavery allowed; respect Indian lands.
Shays' Rebellion (1786)
- Cause: Poor farmers (many were veterans) in the West were losing their farms through mortgage foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They also felt underrepresented in state govt. Capt. Daniel Shays led the rebellion in MA.
- Debtor demands: Cheap paper money, lighter taxes, suspension of property takeovers.
- Collapse of the rebellion: MA authorities raised a small army that clashed with the Shaysites in several skirmishes, the biggest at Springfield, MA. Shays was condemned to death but
Constitutional Convention: VA Plan
(Madison,"large state" plan): 2 houses, representation based on population in both (gave larger states an advantage)
Federalist Papers-: Hamilton, Madison, Jay
- Feds wanted a strong central govt.
- Madison's Federalist No. 10 refuted the claim that republican govt. could only be exercised over a small region.
Anti-Federalists/Bill of Rights
-Antifederalist argument: The Constitution had been written by "aristocrats" and was anti-democratic; it had no bill of rights, and states were losing sovereignty
- Bill of Rights= power to people!
Judiciary Act of 1789
Created the federal court system, including the 6- member Supreme Court [9 members since 1869]. The first Chief Justice was John Jay.
Hamilton's funding plan
- Feds. pay off debt from Rev. War @ face value
- But....govt. bonds bought during the Rev. by soldiers had decreased in value (to about 10-15 cents on the dollar).
Hamilton's assumption plan
- Urged Congress to assume state debts
- Believed that doing this would chain the states to the federal
- ONLY BENEFITTED WEALTHY!!!!
- Hamilton wanted to link wealthy w/ gov so people would give $ to U.S. (trickle-down)
Hamilton's plan for excise tax, Whiskey Rebellion (1794)
- Excise tax on domestic items, notably whiskey.
- Farmers in western PA used whiskey as currency, rose in protest
First Bank of the U. S.
Created in 1791 by Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of Treasury, the Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years and was to have $10mil, 1/5 of which was to be owned by the federal government.
Federalist beliefs (Hamilton)
loose constructionist, believed that the bank was not only constitutional (citing the "necessary and proper" clause), but would also benefit the U.S. govt. as the major stockholder in the bank.
Republican beliefs (Jefferson)
strict constructionist, held to the 10th Amendment, which states that "all powers not specifically granted to the central govt. were delegated to the states."
Washington's neutrality proclamation
Warned Americans to be impartial to both Britain and France. Stood by it during conflict.
Rep. from the French Republic. He outfitted privateers and recruited armies to invade Spanish FL and LA.
Miami Confederacy/Little Turtle/Battle of Fallen Timbers/Treaty of Greenville (1794)
Jay's Treaty (1794)
- The Brits would evacuate a chain of forts and pay for damages to U.S. ships.
-Didn't mention impressment, stealing ships, supplying arms to the Indians.
-Money to pay the debt would come from southern planters, while Federalist merchants would collect damages done to their vessels!
- Mobs hanged, burned, and guillotined Jay in effigy. (Damn John Jay!)
Pinckney's Treaty (1795)
Americans were granted free navigation of the Mississippi River and the large disputed territory north of FL.
Washington's Farewell Address
The U.S. should steer clear of foreign alliances.
John Adams: XYZ Affair (1798), undeclared naval war w/France, end to Franco-American alliance
- Adams= president
- Chosen b/c of hate of Hamilton
- Stuffy, stubborn
- French upset b/c of Jay's Treaty - the French viewed it as a violation of the Franco- American alliance.
-They seized American merchant ships in the W. Indies.
- French secret agents (later dubbed X, Y, and Z) demanded a bribe and a loan to France in lieu of negotiating a dispute.
- Napoleon had taken power; the Convention of 1800 treaty annulled the Franco- American Alliance.
Alien and Sedition Acts
- Alien= An attempt to limit the number of immigrant voters (who usually voted Republican). Never enforced!
- Sedation= To jail or fine anyone (i.e. Republicans) who impeded the policies of the (Federalist) govt. or falsely defamed its officials.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
To stress compact theory - the 13 states were sovereign entities.
Judiciary Act of 1801/Adams' "midnight judges"
-A law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists.
- Adams appointed fed. judges very late into his term.
- Act repealed by Jefferson/Congress in 1802.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
established principle of "judicial review": Supreme Court had final authority to determin constitutionality
Jefferson's "Revolution of 1800"
Jefferson felt that his election represented a return to the spirit of the Revolution. The transition was peaceful and orderly.
Barbary Pirates (1801-05)
- In 1801, the pasha of Tripoli, upset that he didn't get enough "protection money" (bribes), Jefferson cut down the flagstaff of the American consulate.
- Jefferson dispatched the navy to "the shores of Tripoli." They used about 200 small gunboats, mounted with one unwieldy gun (dubbed "Jeffs," they made up the "mosquito fleet").
Purchase of Louisiana (1803)
Territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million by Jefferson.
Lewis & Clark expedition
- A 2.5 year expedition (beginning in 1804) to explore the northern part of Louisiana territory, looking principally for an all-water passage to the west coast.
- Other gains: scientific observations, maps,
knowledge of Indians
Aaron Burr conspiracies
- Burr killed Hamilton in a duel, but got away with it (diplomatic immunity).
- Burr plotted with James Wilkinson (Gov. of Louisiana Terr.) to take over the western part of the U.S., Mexico, and Florida. [W. turned in B. to Jefferson.]
- Burr was arrested and tried for treason, but acquitted on a technicality (Marshall ruled that proof was needed for overt treasonous actions).
- Burr fled to Europe, where he tried to convince Napoleon to make peace with Britain and launch a joint invasion of
British Orders in Council (1807)
Closed European ports under French control to foreign shipping unless they first stopped at British ports
Impressment/Chesapeake Incident (1807)
- impressment= British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
- Chesapeake Incident= In 1807, the U.S. Chesapeake was overhauled by the British frigate Leopard off the coast of VA. The British demanded the surrender of 4 alleged deserters. The Americans refused.
- The British fired on the Chesapeake, killing 3, wounding 18, and taking the deserters.
-Americans were incensed, but Jefferson did not ask for war.
Embargo Act (1807)
- forbade the export of all goods from the U.S., whether in American or in foreign ships.
- it sucked even though NE industries popped up b/c commerce went down
"The father of the Constitution".
Nonintercourse Act (1809)
-Replaced Embargo Act
- Reopened trade with the nations of the world, EXCEPT Britain and France (who were still fighting).
Macon's Bill No. 2 (1810)
dismantled the embargo and offered that if either Britain or France repealed its commercial restrictions, America would restore its embargo against the non-repealing nation. (Madison did not like this bill; it made the U.S. look desperate for trade.)
Tecumseh and "the prophet's" Confederacy
Two Shawnee brothers collected a far-flung confederacy of all tribes east of the Mississippi with the goal of pushing the whites out of the country.
Harrison at Tippecanoe (1811)
- William H. Harrison, governor of Indiana Territory, attacked Tecumseh's HQ on the Tippecanoe River. (Tecumseh wasn't there, but his brother was.) Tenskwatawa, "the Prophet," attacked Harrison's army with a small force and lost. ["The Prophet" fled to Canada.]
- The battle made Harrison a national hero; Tecumseh was driven into an alliance w/the Brits.
"War Hawks": Clay, Calhoun
- Henry Clay, John Calhoun: many westerners and southerners.
- Popular war hawk cry was "On to Canada, on to Canada," due to the British arming of Indians and paying Indians for white scalps.
-Southerners eyed Florida.
-A lot of anger about the impressment issue, as well.
War of 1812/"Mr. Madison's War"
- Federalists didn't support it; their stronghold was New England, where pro-British sentiment dominated.
- Federalists opposed the acquisition of Canada, which would merely add more agrarian states and increase the voting power of Republicans.
- Federalist farmers sent huge quantities of supplies and foodstuffs to Canada to help the British armies.
- New Englanders lent gold to the British.
Oliver Hazard Perry/Lake Erie campaign
Oliver Hazard Perry built ships on the shores
of Lake Erie and captured a British fleet.
"Blue Light" Federalists
(traitors) flashed lanterns on shore to alert blockading British cruisers of attempted escape of American ships
The British burn Washington, D.C. ( August 1814)
Forces burned Capitol, White House. Dolley Madison & Washington's portrait.
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
- Ended "Second War for Independence".
- France & Britain allied after the defeat of Napoleon (1814).
- The war ended with an armistice (both sides
agreed to stop fighting and return conquered
territory). Americans boasted, "Not One Inch of
Territory Ceded or Lost."
- No mention of the grievances that brought on the war: impressment, confiscations, etc. The Americans agreed to give back any land taken from the Indians since 1811. (Of course, this didn't happen.)
Battle of New Orleans
-Andrew Jackson defended the city against the British, who made a foolhardy frontal assault on the entrenched Americans.
- Result = 2,000 Brits killed in 30 min. (vs. only 70 Americans)
- American victory led to restoration of nationalism and self-confidence.
Hartford Convention (1814)
- Federalist New Englanders demanded: compensation for lost trade; constitutional amendments requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed or new states admitted; abolition of the 3/5 clause; prohibition of the election of two successive presidents from the same state; and single-term presidencies.
- A minority wanted to secede from the Union.
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
Limited naval armament for the Americans and British on the Great Lakes.
Era of Good Feelings
A nickname given by some historians to the time period from 1815 to 1824 when there was only one major political party
James Monroe/ "Era of Good Feelings"
A nickname given by some historians during Monroe's presidency, when there was only one major political party and everything was fine, not accurate b/c Panic of 1819, crystallization of sectionalism, etc.
Henry Clay's American System
Bank of US (2nd)
Tariffs (1816- 1st Protective Tariff)
Cumberland (National) Road (1811)
A national road that stretched from Maryland to Illinois and was one of the first highways funded by the federal government
Robert Fulton/steamships (1811)
First steamboat used by Robert Fulton in 1811.
The Second Bank of the U. S. (1816-36)
mainly identical to its predecessor, but this new bank had more capital power - helped the rich much more than the poor. Contributed to the Panic of 1819
Treaty of 1818 w/G.B.
- America & G.B. agreed to fix the northern boundary of the Louisiana Territory at the 49th parallel (as far as Oregon).
- Agreed to a 10-year joint occupation of Oregon and to share Newfoundland fisheries.
Panic of 1819
1st major financial panic since the Constitution was ratified; marked the end of economic expansion and featured deflation (value of US money going down).
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory.
would have provided for gradual emancipation in Missouri
Andrew Jackson in Florida
1st Seminole War (1814-19): Jackson invaded FL in 1818 using the pretext that hostile Seminole &
Creek Indians and fugitive slaves, aided by the
British, were using FL as a refuge.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
- Spain ceded FL as well as any claims to Oregon in exchange for the U.S. abandoning claims to Texas. The U.S. promised to pay $5 million in claims.
- A vague boundary between Louisiana and Spanish territory was also set.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Maryland was trying to tax the national bank and Supreme Court ruled that federal law was stronger than the state law
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against changes proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments.
Gibbons v. Ogden
"steamboat case". interstate commerce & transportation is dealt by Congress.
Fletcher v. Peck
First time a state laws Declared unconstitutional; contracts clause of the Constitution overrode state law
Cohens v. Virginia
Cohens found guilty of selling illegal lottery tickets and convicted, but taken to supreme court, asserted right of Supreme Court to review decisions of state supreme court decisions.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
-Monroe warned the European powers that the era of colonization in the Americas was over and that they should stay out of American affairs.
The Corrupt Bargain (1824)
During the 1824 election, Clay threw the election to Adams in return for nomination as Secretary of State. (He hoped to propel himself into the presidency.)
"Tariff of Abominations" (1828)
- Tariff raised the already high 1824 tariff to a 50-60% level.
- South/ West had tariffs from abroad
John Calhoun/South Carolina Exposition (Nullification)
Fight against Tariff of Abominations, nullification theory (ignoring federal law if it compromised states' rights.)
authorized the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties
Henry Clay/Compromise Tariff
Clay threw his influence behind a compromise bill that reduced the tariff of 1832 by 10% over a period of 8 years.
7th president, Democratic Republican, "common man" image, many rumors about him (mother was a prostitute, wife wasn't legally divorces upon marriage), poor health, patronage in the Cabinet
The Spoils System
(patronage) rewarding loyal supporters with jobs. Illiterates, incompetents, crooks, etc. were given jobs in the Jackson administration.
The Petticoat Affair/the Kitchen Cabinet (1831)
- Peggy and John Eaton (Jackson's Sec. of War) had married 2 years after Peggy's first husband died. It became a Washington scandal. [J. was sensitive to this, as he and his wife had gone through a similar scandal.]
- As a consequence of the scandal, 5 out of 8 of J.'s cabinet resigned (including Eaton), and Van Buren replaced Calhoun as J.'s running mate in 1831. Jackson surrounded himself with loyal supporters that were dubbed the "kitchen cabinet."
Indian Removal Act (1830)
- All Indian tribes then resident east of the Mississippi were to be removed to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) or they must submit to state and federal laws (which J. knew they would not want to do).
- 45,690 Indians were relocated beyond the Mississippi during Jackson's presidency.
Black Hawk's War (1832)
Black Hawk led the resistance movement against eviction from Illinois, the homeland of his people.
Seminole Wars (1817-18; 1835-42)
- First Seminole War (1817-18): Jackson used the "Seminole menace" as an excuse to destroy the main Seminole settlement (the people were scattered into the Everglades).
- The Second Seminole War (1835-42): The government made another attempt to move the Seminoles to Indian Territory. Chief Osceola led the resistance, but was eventually seized after 7 years of guerilla fighting.
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
Cherokee hired a lawyer to plead their case that they were an independent nation,court ruled they were a "domestic dependent nation" under the care of the national gov.
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Missionaries violated GA law prohibiting white men from entering Indian lands w/o state license and were sentenced to hard labor, court ruled that the Cherokee Nation was a "distinct community" with self government "in which the laws of Georgia can have no force." Marshall ordered the two men freed.
The Bank War: Nicholas Biddle, Pet Banks, Specie Circular (1836), Panic of 1837
- Jackson was determined to destroy the Bank of the United States because he thought it was too powerful. He felt the Bank was unconstitutional and only benefited the rich.
- Biddle: president of the National Bank
- pet banks: banks that Jackson used for federal funds.
- Panic of 1837: was caused by
rampant speculation, which led to bank closures, factory shutdowns, and widespread hardship.
Whig Party (Clay, Webster, Taylor, etc.)
Stood in opposition to monarchy, more liberal than conservative.
Martin van Buren
8th president, democrat, won over Whig William H. Harrison
"Trail of Tears" (1838-39)
Forced removal of
~18,000 Cherokees. 4,000-
8,000 died along the way. The people were robbed and cheated by anyone wielding local police power.
Kept government money and private banking separate.
Texas Independence: Stephen Austin, Santa Anna, the Alamo (1836)
- "Lone Star Republic"
- Austin: Leader of the "Old Three Hundred" (roughly 297 families) that migrated to Texas in the mid-1820s.
- Santa Anna: The Mexican Dictator and General of the Mexican Army. In 1835 he wiped out all local rights and raised an army to suppress the Texans.
- Alamo: 13-day siege by Mexican forces against the Texans' forces. The Mexicans stormed the mission, killing all the defenders, including Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett (a Tennessean who sympathized with the Texas cause).
1840 "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign; William H. Harrison & John Tyler
Popular symbols of the bogus but effective campaign the Whigs used to elect "poor boy" William Henry Harrison.
A gradual but profound change in agricultural methods that promoted accelerated economic growth.
transformed a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce
Began with the invention of the steam engine in England. The ingredients for the revolution were:
- Abundant, cheap labor (America had millions of immigrants)
- Raw materials (at first undiscovered and undeveloped)
- Mechanization (required capital investment, which was not plentiful at first)
The Cotton Gin (1793)
- Eli Whitney's invention made separating the seeds from the cotton fiber 50x more effective than previous handpicking.
- Slavery seen as dying out, came back b/c of this.
Erie Canal (1825)
New Yorkers built the canal linking the Great Lakes with the Hudson River (363 mi)
Telegraph/Morse code (1830s)
led to a web of communication by the time of the Civil War
Transatlantic cable (1858)
- brought communication from across sea
- first successful transatlantic cable for telegraph communication was laid in 1866
Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion (Richmond, 1800)
literate, enslaved black man who planned a rebellion, wasn't successful b/c lack of communication and unloyal slaves ratted him out, many hung in response
Denmark Vesey's Conspiracy (Charleston, 1822)
- Called for Vesey and his group of slaves and free blacks to execute their enslavers and temporarily liberate the city of Charleston.
-Two slaves opposed to Vesey's scheme leaked the plot. Many hanged.
Nat Turner's rebellion (1831)
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
Second Great Awakening (1830s-40s)
A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. Not as strict as 1st.
Utopian communities: Oneida, Brook Farm, New Harmony (Owenites)
- Oneida: John Humphrey, NY; communalism, complex marriage, male continence, mutual criticism, and ascending fellowship
- Brook Farm: George Ripley, MA; farm, inspired by transcendentalism, main building burnt in a fire
- New Harmony (Owenites): Robert Owen: socialist community, lacked a shared religious faith and strong leader, advances in science/ed
Women's rights: Stanton and Mott/Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
- Stanton: American Women Sufferage Association, temperance, abolition
- Mott: Organized the Women's Rights Convention with Stanton. antislavery
- Seneca Falls Convention: First women's rights convention held in NY, Declaration of Sentiments
Temperance: Neal Dow (Portland, ME)/American Temperance Society (1826)
- Reducing/ ending consumption of alcohol
- Dow: Fought for legislation to ban alcohol in Maine, the so-called "Maine law of 1851", put on trial b/c he had a stash of rum in city hall for "medicinal purposes."
- ATS: Boston, MA; earned over 1.5 million members who had taken a pledge of abstinence
American Colonization Society: Liberia (1816)
Early plan to move blacks back to Africa, founded by Robert Finley.
American Anti-Slavery Society/Wm. Lloyd Garrison and Arthur Tappan (1833)
- Abolition society founded by Garrison & Tappan in NYC
- Garrison: Published The Liberator
Abolitionists: F. Douglass, S. Truth, H. Tubman, E. Lovejoy
- Douglass: escaped slave who became a powerful voice for the antislavery movement, wrote My Bondage and My
- Truth: "Ain't I a Woman?"
- Lovejoy: white, journalist, killed by mob
Gag Resolution (1836)
antislavery appeals tabled without debate.
Slavery as a "positive good" compared to Northern "wage slavery"
Slaves were said to have better live b/c of housing, food, etc. than "wage slaves" who received none of this. Stupid.
Public education/Horace Mann
Advocated public education for all students (mid-1830s)
"Father of the Common School Movement"
Mormon Church/Joseph Smith
- MC: earlier beliefs of Christianity, polygamy
- Smith: IL; experienced visions of angels
kept men and women separate
Transcendentalism/R. W. Emerson, H. D. Thoreau
- divinity "transcends" human body
- Emerson: published Nature, marked beginning of movement
- Thoreau: On Civil Disobedience & Walden
"Aroostook War"/Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1842)
- between Maine/Canadian lumberjacks over unidentified land
WAT: established Maine's northern border and the boundaries of the Great Lake states
11th president, democrat, pro-expansion ("54° 40' or
Texas annexation (1845)
major issue in the 1844 election, amybe illegal b/c no treaty was signed
Oregon Treaty (1846)
49th parallel the boundary between Canada and US and extended territory to Pacific, gave most of Oregon to US
Mexican War (1846-48): boundary disagreement, Santa Anna, W. Scott, Z. Taylor, Fremont, Kearny
- boundary disagreement: Texans insisted that the boundary was the Rio Grande, not the Nueces River
- Santa Anna's leg
- Generals Taylor and W. Scott dominated the Mexican army.
- Fremont: victor in battle for California overthrowing Mexico in 1846
- Kearny: led his "Army of the West" against New Mexico (no opposition) and then on to CA, where he successfully fought for control of the region agains Fremont
Conscience Whigs/Lincoln's "spot resolutions"
- Conscience Whigs: argued that Polk had not tried to avoid war.
- Lincoln's "spot resolutions": asked Polk and the Democrats to point out exactly the "spot" where American blood had been shed. He argued that American blood had not been shed on American soil.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo/Mexican Cession (1848)
- U.S. title to TX confirmed.
- About 1/2 of the rest of Mexico's territory was signed over to the Americans.
- The U.S. paid $15 million + $3.25 million in claims.
- The Senate confirmed the treaty amidst
uproar by the "Conscience Whigs."
Wilmot Proviso (1846)
proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with MX
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
America wanted to build a railroad through territory in Mexico south of the Gila River, Mexico need $$$ so sold land for 10 million
12 pres, Whig, "Old Rough & Ready"
Gold Rush/CA applies for statehood (1849)
- Gold Rush: Gold was discovered in CA by James Marshall in 1848, "forty-niners"
- CA's population grew to the point that it could apply for statehood.
Free-Soil Party (1848)
condemned slavery because it prevented white workers from rising up from wage-earning dependence to self-employment
Compromise of 1850
-CA would be a free state
-no slave trade in D.C.
-TX got disputed territory from NM
-strict fugitive slave law
-NM and UT were opened to popular sovereignty (letting the people vote on slave/free status).
Fugitive Slave Act, Personal Liberty Laws
- North fought against the strict fugitive slave law by passing personal liberty laws that allowed state officials to refuse cooperation with federal officials in runaway cases.
-The Anthony Burns Case: Burns was an escaped slave from VA captured in Boston. In 1854, he was found to be a fugitive and brought back to VA despite heavy protest.
Uncle Tom's Cabin/H. B. Stowe (book published 1852)
widely read- hated by southerners- made northerners more skeptical of slavery
Know-Nothing (American) Party/Millard Fillmore (1855-60)
- KNP: nativists
- Fillmore: lost 1856 election, part of KNP
Franklin Pierce (1852-56)
14th president, Democrat, supported
the Compromise of 1850, expansionist
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
- created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska
- repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820
- allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
Republican Party (1856)
new, platform was against slavery's expansion into the territories and for worker's rights.
"Bleeding Kansas": John Brown/Pottawatomie Creek, Sack of Lawrence (1856)
- "Bleeding Kansas": Civil war erupted in Kansas over slavery
- John Brown & sons killed people in proslavery settlement @ Pottawatomie Creek
- proslavery raiders shot up and burned part of Lawrence, KA
Lecompton and Topeka Constitutions (Kansas)
- Officially recognized gov of KA government formed under Lecompton
- Free-Soilers formed their own gov under the Topeka Constitution.
Brooks-Sumner Affair (1856)
- Senator Charles Sumner (MA) was assaulted on the floor of the Senate by Congressman Preston Brooks (SC). Sumner had insulted Brooks' cousin, Senator Andrew Butler.
- Brooks repeatedly hit Sumner with a cane, nearly killing him.
James Buchanan (1856-60)
15th president, D, took no action during the "lame duck" period, even though he believed secession was illegal.
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857)
slaves did not have citizenship and therefore could not sue
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)
Lincoln (R) and Stephen Douglas (D) were vying for appointment from the Illinois state senate to the U.S. Senate. [Douglas was the incumbent.] A series of 7 debates centered on the issue of slavery.
the idea of "popular sovereignty"
John Brown/Harper's Ferry (1859)
- Brown, with financial help from northern abolitionists, launched a raid on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, VA.
-Brown's goal was to incite a slave rebellion, but his men were captured shortly after taking the arsenal.
- Brown was captured, tried, and found guilty of treason. He was hanged and became a martyr to the abolitionist cause.
Crittenden Compromise (1860)
would have given federal protection to slavery below the 36th parallel and popular sovereignty would have been the official policy (failed in both the House and the Senate)
Abraham Lincoln (1860-65)
16th president, R, Southern sattes quickly seceded after he was elected, "ended slavery"
The Confederate States of America/J. Davis
The Confederate States of America formed in Feb. 1861 with Jefferson Davis as president.
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
Main theme: the Union will be preserved and there will be no conflict unless the South provokes it.
Fort Sumter (Apr. 1861)
- Lincoln sent in provisions. This would provoke the South and the North could then claim it had been "attacked first."
- South thought this was aggressive, commenced a successful 34-hr. bombardment of the fort (April 12th)
- Lincoln called for 75,000 militiamen and a blockade of the South.
The Border States
-Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, and later, W. Virginia.
- Large white population (more than ½ the entire Confederacy)
- Significant manufacturing capacity
- Vital rivers (Ohio, Tennesse)
Lincoln's limitations on liberty
- Proclaimed a blockade (Congress was out of session)
- Increased the size of the Federal army w/o congressional assent
- Suspended the writ of habeas corpus so that anti- Unionists could be arrested
- Arranged for "supervised" voting in the Border States
- Suspended certain newspapers and had their editors arrested.
1st Bull Run (Jul, 1861)
first land battle of the Civil War, taught both sides that they were unready for what was to come
The Trent Affair (Nov. 1861)
- Two Confederate diplomats were removed from a British mail steamer (the Trent) by a Union crew.
- The two men were released, but the incident nearly caused war between the North and G.B.
Taxes used to pay for war
-Taxes raised (excise duties on tobacco & alcohol)
- Income tax levied for the first time
- Customs duties increased 5-10% under the Morrill Tariff Act
Women's roles during the Civil War
- Took men's jobs in government, industry; ran farms
- Over 400 posed as male soldiers or spies
- Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell organized the U.S. Sanitary
- Clara Barton and Dorothea Dix transformed nursing into
- Women on both sides organized fairs to raise money,
gathered supplies to send to soldiers, etc.
Antietam/George McClellan (Sept. 1862)
- pivotal point in Civil War
- copy of Lee's battle plans found by McClellan
-Result—McClellan allowed Lee to escape across the Potomac. 22,720 killed or wounded.
- Lincoln fired McClellan for good.
The Emancipation Proclamation (Jan. 1, 1863)
-Slaves were freed only in areas behind Confederate military lines.
- Thousands of slaves fled to the Union army.
- The E.P. meant that the war would be a fight to the finish and that the South's way of life would change for good.
- Border state enlistees deserted the Union army.
- Slaves were not freed until the 13th Amendment (1865).
Gettysburg (Jul. 1863)
- Highlights are Little Round Top (day 2) and Pickett's Charge (day 3). The "high tide of the Confederacy."
- Lincoln's Gettysburg Address was called "ludicrous" and "silly" by the southern press.
Conscription laws/NYC draft riots (Jul. 1863)
draft for Civil War
The 13th Amendment (1865)
Monitor vs. Merrimack at Hampton Roads (Mar. 1862)
- The two ships fought at the
Battle of Hampton Roads
-The result was indecisive, but
the era of wooden warships was over.
- The Union blockade of Richmond and Norfolk remained in place.
Robert E. Lee
- Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force.
- Outlasted by Grant.
- Surrendered on April 9, 1865.
Black Americans in the army
- Over 200,000 served in the Union army.
- 54th MA regiment
U. S. Grant
a failure in business, an alcoholic,
yet a bold military leader
Blockade the South, seize the Mississippi River, send troops through GA and the Carolinas, and capture Richmond.
Election of 1864/National Union Party
- Northern Democrats divided over support of Lincoln, nominated George McClellan.
- The Republicans joined with the War Democrats and renamed themselves the National Union Party. They nominated Lincoln.
- A succession of Union victories allowed Lincoln to win.
Appomattox Court House (Apr. 9, 1865)
Grant captured Richmond, VA, in early April 1865 and cornered Lee here.
Lincoln's assassination (Apr. 14, 1865)
John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.
17th president, R, humble beginnings, "Tailor President"
The Freedmen's Bureau, Oliver O. Howard
Welfare agency that would provide food, clothing, medical
care, and education both to freedmen and poor whites. Led by former Union General Oliver O. Howard.
The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863)
Lincoln's plan to allow a state to reintegrate into the Union when 10% of voters in the 1860 election had taken an oath of allegiance to the U.S. and pledged to honor emancipation
The Wade-Davis Bill
counter to Lincoln's plan, required 50% of a state's voters to take an oath of allegiance to the government and demanded stronger safeguards for emancipation
Radical Republicans: T. Stevens, C. Sumner
- Radical Republicans: believed the South should be harshly punished
- Stevens: Senate
- Sumner: House
Johnson's 1865 Reconstruction Proclamation
- disfranchising certain leading ex-Confederates [with taxable property over $20,000]
- special state conventions to repeal the ordinances of secession and ratify the 13th Amendment.
- Penalties were enforced for blacks who jumped labor contracts.
- "Negro-catchers" could forcibly drag blacks back to work.
- Blacks could not vote, sit on a jury, rent or lease land.
- Blacks could be forced to work on chain gangs if found "idle."
- Blacks could be punished as a parent might punish a child.
farming a plot of land owned by another person and giving up 2/3 of the crop to the owner.
The Civil Rights Bill of 1866
would have given Blacks citizenship and struck down many Black Codes
The 14th Amendment (1868)
conferred civil rights (but not voting) and reduced the representation of a state in Congress and the Electoral College if it denied blacks the ballot.
The Reconstruction Act of 1867
Divided the South into five military districts, each commanded by a Union general and policed by soldiers.
"Redeemer"/"Home Rule" Regimes
By 1870, the Southern states had reorganized their governments and had been accorded full rights. When the soldiers left, though, state govts. passed back into the hands of these Democratic
The 15th Amendment (1870)
made voting official for black men
Scalawags and carpetbaggers
- scalawags: freedmen's white allies ("traitors")
- carpetbaggers: those accused of
profiting on the South
- Members dressed as ghosts to scare "upstart" blacks away from the polls
-Congress passed the Force Acts in 1870 & 71 in an effort to curtail the Klan didn't work.
- The KKK Act of 1871 labeled the Klan as a terrorist organization. These acts were poorly enforced.
- The white South openly disobeyed the 14th and 15th Amendments by denying blacks the right to vote through intimidation, fraud, and trickery (i.e. literacy tests).
The Tenure of Office Act (1867)
An act passed which stated that a President could not remove an official appointed by or with advise from the Senate without their approval.
The New South
The new revitalized South following reconstruction. Vision of new industrial South was conceived by New Democrats. Old democrats opposed this rebirth.
The purchase of Alaska
bought by William H. Seward in 1867 from Russia for $7.2 million
Called for a complete boycott of all British goods.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman's men conquered Atlanta in Sept. 1864 and burned it 2 months later. Ex. of "total war"
Constitutional Convention: The New Jersey Plan
(Patterson, "small state" plan): 1 house, equal representation regardless of state size (favored small states)
The Great Compromise (1787)
Equal representation in the
Senate (2 per state); representation by population in the House.
The Three-Fifths Compromise
Slaves= 3/5 of a person for rep.
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