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Human Body Systems Vocabulary

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nervous system
The human body system that controls the body's reactions to the outside world. It is the system that controls the actions, emotions, thoughts, memories, sensations, and senses.
stimuli
Events or conditions that cause a living thing to react.
neurons
Another word for nerve cells which carry messages throughout the body.
cell body
The main part of a neuron.
dendrites
The short strands branching out from the cell body of a neuron.
axon
The single, long strand that comes out of the other side of the cell body.
synapse
The gap between two neurons.
brain
The main control center of the nervous system.
cerebrum
The part of the brain responsible for learning, reasoning, memory, and the senses.
cerebellum
The part of the brain responsible for smooth, coordinated movement.
brain stem
The part of the brain responsible for controlling vital functions such as heartbeat, breathing, and blood pressure.
skeletal system
The human body system that supports the body and gives it shape, protects internal organs, and makes new blood.
bones
Give the basic shape to the body. An adult has 206 of them.
joint
The place where two or more bones meet.
ligaments
Strong bands of connective tissue that holds the bones in a joint together.
marrow
The soft tissue in the middle of a bone which produces new blood cells.
fracture
A break in a bone.
muscular system
The human body system that causes movement of the body parts and also helps with digestion and circulation.
voluntary muscles
Muscles that you can control consciously.
involuntary muscles
Muscles that automatically do their jobs without you needing to think about it.
tendons
Tough bands of connective tissue that connects the muscles to the bones.
circulatory system
The human body system that transports oxygen and nutrients to the body, takes carbon dioxide back to the lungs, and fights infections with white blood cells.
heart
The organ that pumps blood throughout the body.
plasma
One part of the blood which is mostly water and makes up half the blood.
arteries
The blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.
capillaries
The smallest vessels that connect the arteries and the veins.
veins
The blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
atrium
The two upper chambers of the heart.
ventricle
The two lower chambers of the heart.
aorta
The main transporter of blood and the largest artery.
respiratory system
The human body system that provides oxygen through breathing.
nose
Where air is inhaled, filtered, warmed and moistened.
epiglottis
The flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the windpipe.
trachea
The windpipe.
alveoli
The tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchi in the lungs.
diaphragm
The dome-shaped muscle found under the rib cage which is important for breathing.
digestive system
The human body system that breaks down food to be used throughout the body.
salivary glands
The place where saliva is stored and then secreted into the mouth.
saliva
The secretion from the salivary glands.
tongue
The muscle that helps push food to the back of the mouth where it is swallowed.
esophagus
The muscular tube food passes through to get to the stomach.
peristalsis
The muscular action which helps move food through the esophagus and through the rest of the digestive system.
stomach
A j-shaped sac that stores and further digests food.
small intestines
A very long, coiled, tube-like organ that absorbs the nutrients from food.
liver
Produces bile.
gallbladder
A storage sac that holds the bile produced by the liver.
pancreas
Produces pancreatic juices used in digestion.
villi
Tiny finger-like structures that line the inner wall of the small intestine.
large intestine
A tube-like organ that absorbs water from food.
rectum
The place where solid waste is stored.