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22 terms

Ch 1 Scientific Method

Prentice Hall Ch1 and Toulmin vocabulary
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scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
objective
the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
hypothesis
tentative theory about the natural world
variable
a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis
control
a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment
procedure
a particular course of action intended to achieve a result
quantitative data/ numerical data
Data measured or identified on a numerical scale
qualitative data
Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic
ordinal data
data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)
categorical data
Data that consists of names, labels, or other nonnumerical values
observation
the act of making and recording a measurement
spontaneous generation
hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter
theory
a tentative theory about the natural world
biology
the science that studies living organisms
sexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
asexual reproduction
process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
metabolism
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
stimulus
a signal to which an organism responds
homeostasis
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
metric system
decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10
compound light microscope
microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image