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Prentice Hall Ch1 and Toulmin vocabulary

scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses


the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)


tentative theory about the natural world


a factor that changes in an experiment in order to test a hypothesis


a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment


a particular course of action intended to achieve a result

quantitative data/ numerical data

Data measured or identified on a numerical scale

qualitative data

Information describing color, odor, shape, or some other physical characteristic

ordinal data

data exists in categories that are ordered but differences cannot be determined or they are meaningless. (Example: 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

categorical data

Data that consists of names, labels, or other nonnumerical values


the act of making and recording a measurement

spontaneous generation

hypothesis (disproven) stating that life could arise from nonliving matter


a tentative theory about the natural world


the science that studies living organisms

sexual reproduction

reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete

asexual reproduction

process by which a single parent reproduces by itself


set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes


a signal to which an organism responds


process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment


change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

metric system

decimal system of measurement based on certain physical standards and scaled on multiples of 10

compound light microscope

microscope that allows light to pass through a specimen and uses two lenses to form an image

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