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Anthropology Chapter 3
Terms in this set (37)
A diagram used in the study of human genetics that shows the transmission of a genetic trait over generations of a family.
Single celled organisms such as bacteria in which the genetic material is separated from the rest of the cells by a nucleus.
A cells thay possesses a well organized nucleus.
In eukaryotic cells the part of the Cell in which three genetic material is separated from the rest of the Cell ( cytoplasm) by the plasma membrane.
In a eukaryotic cell the region within the Cell membrane that surrounds the nucleus; it contains organelles which carry out the essential functions of the Cell, such as energy production, metabolism, and proteins synthesis.
The cells of the body that are not sex cells.
The sex cells, sperm in males and eggs (ova) in females.
Undifferentiated cells found in the developing embryo that can be Induced to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types or tissues. Also found Adults, although adults stem cells are not as totipotent as embryonic stem cells.
They can differentiate into any of the somatic cell types found in the fetus or adult.
Deoxyribonucleicb acid (DNA)
A double-stranded molecule that is the carrier of genetic information. Each strand is composed of a linear sequence of nucleotides; the two stands are held together by hydrogen Bonds that form between complementary bases.
Complex molecules formed from chains of amino acids ( polypeptide) or from a complex of polypeptides. They function as structural molecules, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones.
The assembly of proteins from amino acids that occurs at ribosomes in the cytoplasm and is based on information carried by mRNA.
Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
Single-stranded nucleic acid that performs critical functions during protein synthesis and comes in three forms: messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA.
Organelles in the cytoplasm of the Cell Where energy production for the cell takes place. Contains its own DNA.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
An organelle in the cytoplasm consisting of a folded membrane.
Structure composed primarily of RNA that are found on the endoplasmic reticulum. They are the site of protein synthesis.
Molecular building block of nucleic acids DNA and RNA; consists of a phosphate, sugar, and base.
Variable component of the nucleotides that form the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In DNA, the bases are adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. In RNA, uracil replaces thymine.
A complex protein that is a catalyst for chemical processes in the body.
Protein found in red blood cells that transports oxygen.
A natural substance (often a protein) produced by specialized cells in one location of the body that influences the activity or physiology of cells in a different location.
Molecules that form the basic building blocks of a protein.
A molecule made up of a chain of amino acids.
The system whereby the nucleotide triplets in DNA and RNA contain the information for synthesizing proteins from the twenty amino acids.
A triplet of nucleotide bases in mRNA that specifies an amino acids or the initiation or termination of a polypeptide sequence.
The fundamental unit of heredity. Consists of a sequence of DNA bases that carries the information for synthesizing a protein (or polypeptide) and occupies a specific chromosomal locus.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
Strand of RNA synthesized in the nucleus as a component to a specific gene (transcription). It carries the information for the sequence of amino acids to make a specific protein into the cytoplasm, where at a ribosome it is read and a protein molecule synthesized (translation)
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA molecules that bind to specific amino acids and transport them to ribosomes to be used during protein synthesis.
The diffuse form of DNA as it exists during the interphase of cell cycle.
Somatic cell division in which a single cell divides to produce two identical daughter cells.
Discrete structure composed of condensed DNA and supporting proteins.
Condensed and constricted region of a chromosome. During mitosis and meiosis, location where sister chromatids attach to one another.
Full complement of paired chromosomes in a somatic cell. In humans, the diploid number is 46 (23 pairs of different chromosomes)
The number of chromosomes found in a gamete, representing one from each pair found in a diploid somatic cell. In humans, the haploid number is 23.
Member of the same pair of chromosomes (or autosomes). Homologous chromosomes undergo crossing over during meiosis.
The location of a gene on a chromosomes. The locus for a gene is identified by the number of the chromosomes on which it is found and its position on the chromosome.
Alternative versions of a gene. Alleles are distinguished from one another by their different effects on the phenotypic expression of the same gene.
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