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18 terms

Super Quiz definitions a-d

from the USAD glossary 2008-2009
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abiogenesis
life from nonliving material
adaptation
characteristic that affords an organism greater fitness
adaptive radiation
evolutionary diversificiation into several different populations
alleles
different versions of the same gene
allopatry
occuring in distinctly seperate locations
allopatric speciation
geographically mediated species formation
amniotic egg
egg w/ compartmentalized sacs that allowed vertebrates to reproduce on land
analogous structures
similar features from common environments
binomial nomenclature
developed by Linnaeus; first term genus, second term species
biogeography
explaining the ecological and historical reasons for the observed geographic distributions of organisms
chromosome
double-stranded DNA molecule, contains a series of genes
clade
group of organisms that share a most recent common ancestor; "monophyletic group"
cladistics
method of phylogeny reconstruction and system of classification that groups organisms according to the explicit definition of uniquely shared and derived characteristics
cladogram
branching/bifurcating diagram; shows evolutionary relationships; depicts points where species diverged
common ancestor
real or hypothetical taxon from which two evolutionary lineages are directly descended
diploid
two matched sets of chromosomes, therefore, two sets of geenes in nucleus
direct fitness
how many alleles a genotype contributes to next generation's gene pool
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; nucleotides in a double helix; controls inheritance