Terms in this set (78)
time of transition from medieval to modern times characterized by intellectual and political expansion as well as the rebirth of culture
Claimed the Renaissance period was in distinct contrast to the Middle Ages; coined the tern "Renaissance"
Different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers
The form of government in Italy in the 13th through 16th centuries, in which a lord ruled a lordship. This replaced republican and democratic government because it seemed simpler to have the power in the hands of one strong leader rather than many who fought amongst themselves.
"rule by few", important political rights are withheld from majority of population
Contract between merchant and
"merchant-adventurer" who agreed to take goods to
distant locations and return with the proceeds (for 1/3
military brokers who furnished mercanary forces to the Italian city states in the Renaissance
Republic of Florence
A moderatly large Italian city that was central to the Italian Renaissance because of its gifted individuals; Dante, Pretrach, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Boticelli and others. The city was ruled by the Medici familly, a family of great wealth. Still, the city continued to produce new ways of thinking and helped progress the Renaissance further.
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Cosimo de' Medici
in 1443 he took control of the city. the Medici family ran the government from behind the scenes. using their wealth and personal influence, cosimo and later his son
Lorenzo de' Medici (the Magnificent)
Grandson of Cosimo, he used his great wealth to govern Florence, but he is also remembered as a poet, connoisseur, and lavish benefactor of art and learning.
Duchy of Milan
Ruled by Sforza Family after 1450; Milan was a principal adversary of Venice and Florence until the Peace of Lodi created a relative 40- year period of peace among the Italian city states
Milanese family who, through despotism, came to power in 1450; ruled without constitutional restraints or serious political competition; produced one of Machiavelli's heroes, Ludovico il Moro.
Republic of Venice
Longest lasting of the Italian states because it did not succumb to foreign powers unit Napoleon. Also one of the world's great naval and trading powers during the 14th and 15th centuries
territories in central italy controlled by the pope
Naples, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Only Italian city state to official have a "king". controlled by both France and Spain.
French king, invited by Sforza to invade Florence, fought over Italy with Ferdinand of Aragon in the first of many French Italian wars. In 1494, he controlled Florence, the Papal States, and Naples.
a Dominican friar in Florence who preached against sin and corruption and gained a large following; he expelled the Medici from Florence but was later excommunicated and executed for criticizing the Pope; wanted to overthrow the Medici Dynasty
Machiavelli, The Prince
A patriot of Italy, he wrote the most lasting work of the Italian Renaissance, a quintessential political treatise. In it, he wrote of how he dreamed that when citizens of his native Florence, or all of Italy, should behave like early Romans--show virility in their politics, fight in citizen armies for patriotic causes, and uphold their dignity before Europe. He admired the leaders of France, Spain and England because they knew how to exercise poer and how to build strong states. (ends justify means, for rulers it is better to be feared than loved).
A political leader, son of Pope Alexander VI, a member of the Spanish Borgia family, he had ambitions of uniting all of Italy under his control. His father tried to exploit his office for the benefit of his relatives.
Sack of Rome 1527
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
This was the Holy Roman Emperor that called for the Diet of Worms. He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
idea that people should be active in civic affairs or participate in their government. Education should include teaching humanist ideals because most important humanists were important political leaders.
The father of humanism, he wrote that literature should not be subordinate to religion. He studied ancient texts like Cicero, and wrote his poetry in Italian vernacular, which unified the Italian language. He became a symbol of a new type of writer, he didn't use language merely as a practical tool but instead for expression.
Bocaccio, his contemporary and also a Florentine, wrote this in Italian. A series of tales designed both to entertain and to impart a certain wisdom about human character and behavior. They were followed by the main group of humanists, far more numerous but less well remembered.
1. First to use the term "humanism"
2. Among the most important of the civic humanists
3. Served as a chancellor in Florence
4. Wrote a history of Florence, perhaps the first modern
history, and wrote a narrative using primary source
documents and the division of historical periods
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On false Donation of Constantine. Father of modern historical criticism.
the authorized version of the Bible for the Catholic Church
Founded the Platonic Academy at the behest of Cosimo de' Medici in the 1460s. Translated Plato's works into Latin, giving modern Europeans access to these works for the fist time.
Pico Della Mirandola
Wrote On the Dignity of Man which stated that man was made in the image of God before the fall and as Christ after the Resurrection. Man is placed in-between beasts and the angels. He also believed that there is no limits to what man can accomplish.
The Book of The Courtier. Described the ideal of a Renaissance man who was well versed in the Greek and Roman classics, and accomplished warrior, could play music, dance, and had a modest but confident personal demeanor. It outlined the qualities of a true gentleman.
The striving for excellence. Humanistic aspect of Renaissance.
A German printer of the fifteenth century, who invented the printing press. He also invented the technique of printing with "movable type"--that is, with one piece of type for each letter, so that the type could be reused after a page was printed.
Massive patronage for the arts came from wealthy merchant-families who commissioned countless works from the great artists.
Italian painter and art historian (1511-1574); wrote The Lives of the Artists. Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medici's and also the churches, who saw art as a means of glorifying God.
With decline of Florence in late 15th century, Renaissance shifted to rome.
Pope Alexander VI
This was the pope that granted power to Ferdinand and Isabella to appoint bishops to the Spanish territories and also settled the argument between Spain and Portugal over South America
an artistic technique that creates the appearance of three dimensions on a flat surface
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
medieval faces in art--more stylized and generic
Painting technique in which contours are enveloped in a suggestive, smoke-like haze
put all weight on one leg, causes hips to shift and shoulders to counter balance, which sets up potential for natural pose
Greek temple architecture
triangular pediments, Greek columns, Roman arches, domes. Simplicity, symmetry, balance.
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
An architect who boldly combined classical and Gothic architecture. He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting.
won a contest to design bronze doors for the San Giovanni Baptistry in Florence. The doors were nicknamed "The Gates of Paradise" by Michelangelo.
had essence of sculptures of antiquity; celebrated Florentine heroism;simplicity and strength
He used light and dark imagery to illustrate different feelings and emotions
painter of Birth of Venus. The painting is a good example of humanism as the subject is Venus, the Roman goddess of love
period beginning in the late 15th century, it produced some of the most well-knownreligious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as leonardo, raphael, and michelangelo
started St. Peter's Basilica, had a giant circular dome (138 ft. in diameter) greatest building in High Renaissance
One of the best examples of a Renaissance man. He painted, wrote, sculpted, invented, among his philosophical ideas
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
An Italian painter, sculptor, and architect of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Among many achievements in a life of nearly ninety years, Michelangelo sculpted the David and several versions of the Pietà, painted the ceiling and rear wall of the Sistine Chapel, and served as one of the architects of Saint Peter's Basilica, designing its famous dome. He is considered one of the greatest artists of all time.
Greatest Renaissance painter in Venice, used vivid color and movement, which was the opposite of the subtle colors and static figures in Florentine paintings.
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poese and compression of space.
Spanish painter (born in Greece) remembered for his religious works characterized by elongated human forms and dramatic use of color (1541-1614)
the movement in Art in Germany and Flanders that reflected greater religious tones; , Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Part of the northern Renaissance which had an emphasis on early Church writings that provided answers on how to improve society and reform the Church. It drew on Hebrew and Greek texts of the Bible and writings of the Church Fathers. The writings led to criticism of the Church, ultimately the Reformation
erasmus, In Praise of Folly
Famous northern humanist, a European authority on the Greek language who translated the New Testament into purer language (away from Latin and Greek). He was the first humanist to earn a living writing, and his most famous work criticized the church in order to cause reform.
thomas more utopia
Civic humanist who rose to a high government position in England. His masterpeice is a description of a utopian society where there is a balance of humanism, religion and property, which he believes causes problems in society (some have it, most don't). He believed that for harmony in society, individuals must be willing to sacrifice rights for the common good.
Jacques Lefevre d'Etables
1. Leading French humanist and good example of how
Northern Christian humanists focused on early Church
2. Produced 5 versions of the Psalms that challenged a
single authoritative version of the Bible.
· A devout Catholic, he was later seen as an enemy
of the Church and was condemned for heresy
Francesco Ximenes de Cisneros
Grand inquisitor of the Spanish Inquisition. A Spanish humanist who reformed the Spanish clergy and church so that many of the Church abuses that were highlighted during the Reformation did not necessarily apply to Spain. Made Complutensian Polyglot Bible, which placed Hebrew, Greek, and Latin versions of the Bible in parallel columns.
A French Humanist who lived 1494-1553. He was the author of Gargantua which made fun of the church using giants to represent the church. Instead of true monks there were swimming pools, maids, and no clocks.
Michel de Montaigne,
Michel de Montaigne is the finest represent of the early modern skepticism. Montaigne developed a new literary genre: the essay. He rejected the claim that one culture may be superior to others and by doing this he inaugurated a new era of doubt. (p.519)
English dramatist and poet; considered one of the greatest writers in the English Language
Miguel de cervantes
Author of Don Quixote who was believed to write the book in order to mock chivalry or to write about an idealistic person who longs for romantic past because is frustrated with material world.
a Northern Renaissance Art, More detail throughout painting, use of oil paints, more emotional that the Italian style, and works often preoccupied with death
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
A surrealist painter of the Netherlands who focused his works on symbolism, fantasy, confusion, death and the torments of Hell. Most famous work = "Death and the Miser" (1490)
was Flemish; works include "The Wedding Banquent", "Children at Play", "The Beggers", and "The Wedding", 1500s; important painter who used vibrant colors to portray scenes of peasant life;
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
German portrait painter of the 1500s known for his photographic-like realism
German Family (esp. Jacob Fugger, 1459-1525) that was significant in patronizing art of the Northern Renaissance. Their fortune was the result of international banking, which was similar to the Medici family in Florence.
Christine de Pisan
An unusual French woman, who earned her living by writing. She was an autocrat who started with love poems, then wrote an autobiographical poem. She was hugely successful, but had to fight stereotypes of women at the time. She was a feminist who used wit and reason to argue against antifeminist ideas, and asked women to develop independent self-worth and not rely on men, who cannot really empathize with women. She saluted Joan of Arc for her dignity as a French citizen and woman. She was an exception, but her writing was the epitomy of ideas of the century.
First Lady of the Renaissance. Set an example that women should break away from expected roles, and stared a school for young women
first female painter to gain recognition during the renaissance, painted historical and religious scenes, not the typical portraits like most women