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94 terms

Digestive system

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or/o & stomat/o
mouth
gloss/o & lingu/o
tongue
bucc/o
cheek
cheil/o & labi/o
lips
dent/o & odont/o
teeth
esophag/o
esophagus
pharyng/o
pharynx
gastr/o
stomach
duoden/o
duodenum - the first part of the small intestine
enter/o
(small) intestine
jejun/o
jejunum - the second part of the small intestine
ile/o
ileum - the third part of the small intestine
append/o & appenic/o
appendix
col/o & colon/o
colon
sigmoid/o
sigmoid colon
proct/o
anus, rectum
hepat/o
liver
pancreat/o
pancreas
chol/e
bile, gall
cholecyst/o
gall bladder
choldoch/o
bile duct
-emesis
vomit
-centesis
surgical puncture
-scope
instrument for examining
-lith
stone, calculus
-itis
inflammation
-megaly
enlargement
hypo-
under, below, deficient
dia-
across
peri-
around
sub-
under, below
BM
bowel movement
GI
gastrointestinal
NG
nasogastric
b.i.d.
twice a day
NPO
nothing by mouth
p.r.n.
as required
hernia
protrusion of any organ, tissue, or structure through the wall of the cavity in which it is naturally contained.
melena
passage of dark-colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestional juices
halitosis
bad breath
dysphagia
difficulty swallowing
dysphasia
difficulty speaking
anorexia
lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
appendicitis
Inflamation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection.
antacids
treat and prevent heartburn and acid reflux
antidiarrheals
used to treat diarrhea
antiemetics
used to treat nausea and vomiting
antispasmodics
used to treat irritable bowel syndrome, spastic colon and diverticulitis
laxitives
used to treat constipation
diagnostic endoscopy
upper GI and lower GI
ingestion
taking in food
peristalsis
involuntary pushing of food along tract
digestion
breakdown of food providing body with essential water, nutrients, and minerals. Completes mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods for absorption by cell membranes
absorption
passage of food from digestive tract to other systems
defication
elimination of waste
Gastrointestinal tract (alimentary canal)
extends from the mouth to the anus.
1. Mouth
2. Pharnyx
3. Esophagus
4. Stomach
5. Small Intestine
6. Large Intestine
7. Anus
Acessory structures
1. teeth
2. tongue
3. saliva glands
4. liver
5. gallbladder
6. pancreas
Amylase
breaks down carbs into maltose (beginning of digestion) ie. cotton candy
bolus
food broken up into a small, round mass
mastication
chewing
32 permanent teeth
# of adult teeth
dentes
teeth
gingival
gums
pharynx
3 sections
nasopharynx
closed off by the uvula and small palate (involuntary)
oropharynx
back of mouth into throat (food voluntarily forced back there)
larngopharynx
after food has passed the sealed off Larynx, it passes through here to the esophagus
sphincter
valve
pepsin
an enzyme that starts the break down of protiens into amino acids
rugae
large folds of the stomach when the stomach is empty, the folds disappear when there is food in the stomach (expands and contracts)
pancreas
responsible for insulin production
lipase
turns fats into fatty acids (glycerol)
amylase
turns carbs into maltose (glucose)
Liver
in the RUQ and the largest internal organ in the body. Manufactures the anticoagulant heprin, prothombin and thrombin. Detoxifies the blood
anticoagulant
agent that slows the clotting process
Small intestine
where most of digestion takes place, 80% of absorption takes place here. 21 feet long and has 3 sections
1.duodenum
starts at the stomach
2.jejunum
middle section
3.ileum
ends at large intestine
Large intestine
no digestion takes place here. Water and vitamins are absorbed here. 4 sections
1.cecum
appendix is attached
2.colon
4 parts...?
3.rectum
...
4.anus
...
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD)
open sores in the stomach caused by smoking, alcohol and asprin.
Hernia
protrusion of organ tissue or structure through wall of cavity. Can cause strangulation or necrosis.
Hemorrhoids
enlargement of veins in anal area
jaundice
liver can no longer remove bilirubin causing yellowing of the skin
hepetitis A
ingestion of fecal matter
hepetitis B
blood and body fluids
Upper GI endoscopy
esophaoscopy, gastoscopy and duodenoscopy
Lower GI endoscopy
colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy
Appendectomy
removal of inflamed or infected appendix
Lithotripsy
non-invasive surgical proceedure that uses sound waves to break up masses for easy passing. - gallstones, kidney stones.