74 terms

Industrial revolution (and enclosure)

Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
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Terms in this set (...)

urbanization
movement of people into cities
bourgeoisie
merging new middle-class
tenements
multistory buildings divided into apartments for the working class
Methodism
religious movement that comforted the working class (stressed need for a personal sense of faith)
John Wesley
founded the Methodist movement in mid 1700s
factory conditions
12-16 work shifts 6-7 per week; few breaks; accidents
women
majority of early factory workers
child labor reform laws
"factory acts" passing to reduce a child's workday to 12 hours
labor union
workers' organizations (illegal in the early 1800s)
Luddites
English textile workers who resisted labor-saving machines that were costing them their jobs (riots in 1811 to 1813)
What were the social effects of the Industrial Revolution?
Benefits: 1) created jobs 2) created a new middle class (bourgeoisie) Challenges: 1) crowded cities 2) labor organizations illegal 3) factory workers lived and worked in unpleasant dangerous conditions 4) women and children worked
How did conditions become so bad in industrial cities?
The move from the country to cities was rapid. Cities were not prepared to cope with the influx
Why was little done to improve conditions initially?
Working people were poor and powerless to improve their lot
What were the causes of urbanization in the 1700s?
loss of small farms, population growth, demand for workers
According to Kay-Shuttleworth, how did factory owners view their workers?
as machines
Why was this view bad for the workers?
Unlike machines, they needed rest and protection from injury
Friedrich Engels
(1820-1895) Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably "Das Kapttal" (l867)
Factors in England culminating in the first-ever Industrial Revolution
1) The Agricultural Revolution Population 2) Growth Financial 3) Innovations 4) The Enlightenment and the Scientific Revolution 5) Navigable Rivers and Canals 6) Coal and Iron 7) Government Policies 8) World Trade 9) The Cottage Industry
anesthetic
drug that prevents pain during surgery - an American dentist first used it - specifically nitrous oxide (or laughing gas)
enclosure
the process of taking over and consolidating land formerly shared by peasant farmers
Thomas Newcomen
British inventor of the steam engine
Matthew Boulton
entrepreneur who hired Watt to build better engines
What effect did Boulton think steam power would have on the world?
It would benefit people by relieving them of hard manual labor
James Watt
Scottish engineer who made the steam engine more efficient by adding a wheel - "Father of the Industrial Revolution"
smelt iron
separate iron from its ore
Abraham Darby
used coal instead of charcoal to smelt iron
Abraham Darby III
built the world's first iron bridge
Jethro Tull
invents the seed drill to aid farmers
What kinds of statistics might reflect the changes that occurred in the Industrial Revolution?
statistics on rural and urban population, factory
production, product sales
How did farming methods improve during the second agricultural revolution?
Fertilizer and crop rotation led to higher crop yields; larger fields and new devices increased efficiency
How did these changes in farming help lead to the Industrial Revolution?
Greater efficiency reduced the need for labor. Farm laborers migrated to cities in search of work
Which two developments helped start the Industrial Revolution?
improvements to the steam engine and to iron production
How did these two technologies influence each other?
Better-quality iron was used to build steam engines; steam engines produced new uses for iron, such as locomotives
Great Britain's Advantages
Labor Supply
Natural Resources
Investment Capital
Entrepreneurs
Transportation
Markets
Government Support
John Kay
Flying Shuttle
James Hargreaves
Spinning Wheel Spinning Jenny
Richard Arkwright
Water Frame
Edmund Cartwright
Power Loom
Samuel Crompton
Spinning Mule
Effect of Mechanization
quality increase
price decreased
slavery in U.S. increase
Main employees of Textile Factories were WOMEN and CHILDREN
The Industrial Revolution
From about 1750 to 1850. The time period when new technologies, such as factories, were able to make more products faster. It began in England, and then spread to the United States and Japan.
England
The birth place of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700's because the country had: 1) many natural resources such as wood, iron, and coal, 2) workers, 3) wealth, and 4) markets and international trade.
Entrepreneur
A person who starts a new business.
Cottage industry
The way people worked in the 18th century, making products in their own homes. These people lived in the countryside.
Rural
Countryside lifestyle
Urban
Big city life
Puddling
The process of strengthening iron by adding coke (from coal). This new, stronger form of iron was used to make machines and build railroads.
Textiles
Fabrics made in large factories
socialism
An economic system where the government owns and controls important parts of the economy, such as factories and energy production.
Nationalism
A feeling of loyalty to their nation. This was powerful in the 19th century. People identified themselves with their language, culture, religion, and customs. People felt united under one nation, not under one ruler.
Unification
The process of smaller kingdoms joining together to create one larger nation. Italy became unified between 1859 and 1870, and Germany from 1866 to 1871.
Abolitionism
The American movement to end slavery in the early to mid 1800's
American Civil War
1861 to 1865, the fight between the Northern and Southern United States to prevent the South from seceding. It was also over slavery.
Secede
To withdraw or remove yourself.
Romanticism
An 18th century reaction to the Enlightenment. Art expressed feeling, emotion, and imagination.
Ludwig van Beethoven
A genius musician of the Romantic period.
Louis Pasteur
The scientist who developed the germ theory of disease and started many modern medical practices.
Charles Darwin
This scientist developed the theory that every specials of plant and animal had evolved over millions of ears from simpler forms of life.
Evolution
The idea that species change over time to adapt to their environment.
Realism
The belief that the world should be viewed as it really is. Artists and writers portrayed real life people.
British Enclosure Movement
one of the fenced-in or hedged-in fields created
by wealthy British landowners on land that was
formerly worked by village farmers
Factory System
n. a large building in which machinery is used to
manufacture goods
Cottage Industry
the production, for sale, of goods at home, as the making of handicrafts by rural families.
Crop rotation
the system of varying successive crops in a definite order on the same ground, especially to avoid depleting the soil and to control weeds, diseases, and pests.
Factors of Production
the resources—including land,
labor, and capital—that are needed to produce goods and
services.
Spinning Jenny
an early spinning machine having more than one spindle, enabling a person to spin a number of yarns simultaneously.
Steam Engine
an engine worked by steam, typically one in which a sliding piston in a cylinder is moved by the expansive action of the steam generated in a boiler.
Cotton Gin
a machine for separating the fibers of cotton from the seeds.
Henry Bessemer
English engineer: inventor of the Bessemer process.
Edward Jenner
English physician: discoverer of smallpox vaccine.
Louis Pasteur
French chemist and bacteriologist.His discovery that the fermentation of milk and alcohol was caused by microorganisms resulted in the process of pasteurization
Industrialization
the
development of industries for the machine production of
goods.
Entrepreneur
person who
organizes,
manages, and takes on the risks of a business.
Urbanization
the growth of
cities and the migration of people into them
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