Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism.
(1624-1642) Brings order to France by bringing absolutism. Reigns in the Nobles. He is brutal. He makes France involved in the 30 Year War. He is a Catholic Cardinal. He is less concerned with the Catholic Church and more concerned about France. He expands the influence of France.
Catherine de Medicis
Ruled as Queen of France for after Francis II and fought to reconcile French and Protestant relations. Because of her fear of the Guises, she fought to maintain the monarchy. However she was forced to cooperate with the Guises. Balanced the two religious sides.
A powerful Huguenot leander of the Montmorency-Chatillons. He took command once Conde was dead. He was killed as a part of a Catholic plot and this caused the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre. Charles IX's most trusted adviser
Defenestration of Prague
The throwing of Catholic officials from a castle window in Bohemia. Started the Thirty Years' War.
Edict of Nantes
1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
joins Thirty Years' War in 1629, king of Sweden, Protestant leader, stands up for fellow Protestants, military genius, wins a lot for Protestant team; supported by Richelieu, who wants to end Hapsburg power; killed in 1632 at battle of Luetzen
A powerful European family that provided many Holy Roman Emperors, founded the Austrian (later Austro-Hungarian) Empire, and ruled sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Spain. (p. 449)
Henry of Navarre
Political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protestant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he became king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots
A Scottish Catholic queen who fled Scotland during its reformation and later attempted to organize the assassination of Elizabeth I; she was beheaded. She was the daughter of James V of Scotland and Mary of Guise. She became queen when she was 6 years old. She married Francis, the king of france and ruled over france for one year until Francis died in 1560. Then she married Lord Darnley. She had a plan to assassinate her cousin, Elizabeth to take the throne of England. She was always seen as a threat but once she went too far, Elizabeth had her imprisoned and eventually beheaded.
Mary Tudor, Bloody Mary
Took the English throne in 1553. She was the oldest daughter of Henry VIII, part of the Tudor family, and a devoted Catholic. Married to Philip II of Spain. Helped lead Counter-Reformation against Protestantism. Her goal was to return Britain to the Catholic Church. Nicknamed Bloody Mary because of the 300 Protestants she killed during her reign. Died with no heirs to the throne.
Pacification of Ghent
1576; all provinces in the Netherlands would stand together under William of Orange's leadership, respect religious differences, and demand the removal of Spanish troops
another name for elders or priests; in the early church, presbyters were closely associated with the bishop in the exercising of leadership in some faith communities
Peace of Westphalia
Treaty that ended the Thirty Years' War (1648) and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe.
(1527-1598) King of Spain from 1556 to 1598. Absolute monarch who helped lead the Counter Reformation by persecuting Protestants in his holdings. Also sent the Spanish Armada against England.
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
During the occupation of the Low Countries by Phillip II's forces, the Spanish army mutinied after not having received pay. During the subsequent rampage, these Spanish troops pillaged and murdered over six thousand people in Antwerp.
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
Six week nation wide slaughter of Huguenots. Occurred when Huguenot nobles were in Paris attending the marriage of Catherine's dughter to a Huguenot prince, Henry of Navarre.
Thirty Years' War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.