Chapter 1 Psychology

psychological science
the study of mind, brain, and behavior
all the knowledge and values shared by a society
nature/nurture debate
the arguments concerning whether psychological characteristics are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture
mind/body problem
The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body.
mind and body are a unified whole
idealistic monism
Theory that reality consists of a single essence or substance which is essentially mental or spiritual in nature
materialistic monism
only matter (the body) exists
seeing mind and body as two different things that interact
chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another
genetic code/ human genome
blue print for human body, scientists have used this to discover links between genes & behavior
evolutionary theory
in psychological science, a theory that emphasizes the inherited, adaptive value of behavior and mental activity throughout the history of a species
any trait that aids the chances of chances of survival and reproduction of an organism. traits that increase an organism's fitness & ability to reproduce.
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
biological level of analysis
research dealing with the physical body and how it contributes to mind and behavior
individual levels of analysis
personality, perceptions, activities choices
cultural level of analysis
How different cultures shape the thoughts, feelings, and actions of the people in them
a method of self-observation in which participants report their thoughts and feelings; developed by Wundt, also founded modern experimental Psychology
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the human mind, developed by Titchner
a psychology based on the assumption that all mental process are useful to an organism in adapting to the environment, william James
stream of consciousness
a narrative technique that presents thoughts as if they were coming directly from a charcters mind
Gestalt theory
a theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements
mental process that operate below the level of conscious awareness
Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts
an approach to psychology that emphasizes observable measurable behavior
cognitive psychology
perspective that focuses on the mental processes involved in perception, learning, memory, and thinking
cognitive neuroscience
The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity (including perception, thinking, memory, and language) linked with cognition.
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
amiable skepticism
wariness of new scientific findings--carefully weighing the evidence in deciding what to believe