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chapter 2 psychology

STUDY
PLAY
scientific method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
hypothesis
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
research
systematic investigation to establish facts; reliability, accuracy, validity
data
a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn
replication
repetition of an experiment to confirm results
variable
A factor that can change in an experiment
design types
descriptive, correlations, and experiment
operational definitions
identify and quantify variables so they can be measured
descriptive study
involves observing and noting behavior in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis; advantages= real world setting; disadvantages= bias observations, observer presence can change behavior
naturalistic observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
participent observation
study where researcher s actively involved in the situation
longitudinal studies
a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period; advantages= info about the affects of age on the same people;disadvantages= expensive, takes a long time
observer bias
systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations
cross-sectional studies
a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another;advantages= faster and less expensive; disadvantages= unidentified variables may be involved