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scientific method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses


an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations


a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations


systematic investigation to establish facts; reliability, accuracy, validity


a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn


repetition of an experiment to confirm results


A factor that can change in an experiment

design types

descriptive, correlations, and experiment

operational definitions

identify and quantify variables so they can be measured

descriptive study

involves observing and noting behavior in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis; advantages= real world setting; disadvantages= bias observations, observer presence can change behavior

naturalistic observation

Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.

participent observation

study where researcher s actively involved in the situation

longitudinal studies

a research in which the same people are restudied and retested over a long period; advantages= info about the affects of age on the same people;disadvantages= expensive, takes a long time

observer bias

systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer's expectations

cross-sectional studies

a study in which people of different ages are compared with one another;advantages= faster and less expensive; disadvantages= unidentified variables may be involved

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