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Battle of Bosworth Field
Aug.22, 1485, Richard III v. Henry VII. Thomas Stanley and brother defected from Richard and Richard killed going for Henry. End of war of roses, Henry VII marries Eliz. of York.
Henry VII's Success
Elimination of Rivals, Depletion of nobility, restriction of armed retaining, finance and foreign policy
Depletion of nobility
Restricts size and lets them die off, bill of attainder passed against those who had rebelled at battle
Restriction of armed retaining
Curbed military power of lords, statute of liveries limits armed retaining to the servants, officers and lawyers of great lords and threatens those who violate it with fines
English monarchy had become weak and failed to maintain order, so result is nobility and gentry forming armies
Court of Assizes
Circuit courts held by central court justices twice a year in each county, 6 circuits, criminal and civil cases
Court of Star Chamber
King's council giving harsh justice but no execution. Could punish for public disturbance or riot, could punish contempt for other courts, convicted people for slander/perjury
More civilized, less violent, invention of inns due to safe highway travel, increase in litigation instead of settling outside the law
Unam Sanctum 1302
Boniface VIII declared the papacy was the only established political authority - "universal monarchy"
Homily of obedience 1547
Henry VIII had to make sure people didn't rebel against son Edward VI so this made it so you couldn't resist or hurt anointed king
Homily of 1571
A rebel is worse than the worst prince and rebellion worse than the worst government of the worst prince
Doctrine of non-resistance
Political doctrine that becomes main doctrine promulgated by all Tudors - can't resist a king in any way or you risk resisting God
Sacerdotal power of the pope, shares this with other bishops, and through this the bishop has the power to ordain priests, and priests have power to say mass and administer sacraments
Temporal power of the pope - includes: taxation of the clergy, patronage (appt. of bishops), defines doctrine, final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical cases, excommunication
Statute of provisors
Declared that if the pope tried to install his appointees rather than those selected by the king of England, the pope's appointees would be imprisoned and the king would make the appointments. Pope Boniface IX responded to the statute of 1389 by threatening to excommunicate any bishop who obeyed the king in this conflict
Statute of Praemunire
1353, 1365, and the "great statute" of 1393, effectively excluded papal power from England in matters of patronage. Papal citation, bulls of excommunication, and bulls of provision couldn't enter England. Cases regarding patronage in the church courts couldn't be appealed to Rome. Clerics who challenged the king's rights in matters of provision could be imprisoned and would lose his property.
Restraint of appeals
1533, drafted by Cromwell, forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the king the final legal authority, claimed that England was an empire
Act of Supremacy
1534, not only does it declare the king the head of the church, but gives him power to "visit, repress, redress, reform, order, erect, restrain and amend heresies, abuses, etc. - gets jurisdicitional power of the pope, including right to define doctrine
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