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Norman Conquest


Magna Carta


Glorious Revolution


Passage of the Reform bill


End of WWII, first full-labor gov't


Battle of Bosworth Field

Aug.22, 1485, Richard III v. Henry VII. Thomas Stanley and brother defected from Richard and Richard killed going for Henry. End of war of roses, Henry VII marries Eliz. of York.

Henry VII's Success

Elimination of Rivals, Depletion of nobility, restriction of armed retaining, finance and foreign policy

Elimination of rivals

Yorkists reduced, marriage to Elizabeth to neutralize threat

Depletion of nobility

Restricts size and lets them die off, bill of attainder passed against those who had rebelled at battle

Restriction of armed retaining

Curbed military power of lords, statute of liveries limits armed retaining to the servants, officers and lawyers of great lords and threatens those who violate it with fines

Finance and foreign policy

Avoided foreign wars, increases money he receives

Treaty of Etaples

1492, closes France to Yorkist rebels

Magates Power

English monarchy had become weak and failed to maintain order, so result is nobility and gentry forming armies

Common law courts

Assizes, Westminster abbey, King's bench, common pleas, exchequer

Court of Assizes

Circuit courts held by central court justices twice a year in each county, 6 circuits, criminal and civil cases


Where parliament meets

King's Bench

Main criminal court

Common Pleas

Main civil court


Court that deals with financial matters

Court of Star Chamber

King's council giving harsh justice but no execution. Could punish for public disturbance or riot, could punish contempt for other courts, convicted people for slander/perjury

Tudor Peace

More civilized, less violent, invention of inns due to safe highway travel, increase in litigation instead of settling outside the law

Unam Sanctum 1302

Boniface VIII declared the papacy was the only established political authority - "universal monarchy"

Homily of obedience 1547

Henry VIII had to make sure people didn't rebel against son Edward VI so this made it so you couldn't resist or hurt anointed king

Homily of 1571

A rebel is worse than the worst prince and rebellion worse than the worst government of the worst prince

Doctrine of non-resistance

Political doctrine that becomes main doctrine promulgated by all Tudors - can't resist a king in any way or you risk resisting God

Potestas ordinis

Sacerdotal power of the pope, shares this with other bishops, and through this the bishop has the power to ordain priests, and priests have power to say mass and administer sacraments

Potestas jurisdictionis

Temporal power of the pope - includes: taxation of the clergy, patronage (appt. of bishops), defines doctrine, final jurisdiction in ecclesiastical cases, excommunication

Statute of provisors

Declared that if the pope tried to install his appointees rather than those selected by the king of England, the pope's appointees would be imprisoned and the king would make the appointments. Pope Boniface IX responded to the statute of 1389 by threatening to excommunicate any bishop who obeyed the king in this conflict

Statute of Praemunire

1353, 1365, and the "great statute" of 1393, effectively excluded papal power from England in matters of patronage. Papal citation, bulls of excommunication, and bulls of provision couldn't enter England. Cases regarding patronage in the church courts couldn't be appealed to Rome. Clerics who challenged the king's rights in matters of provision could be imprisoned and would lose his property.

Impediments to marriage to Catherine

Public dishonesty or affinity in the first degree collateral

Restraint of appeals

1533, drafted by Cromwell, forbade all appeals to the Pope in Rome on religious or other matters, making the king the final legal authority, claimed that England was an empire

Act of Supremacy

1534, not only does it declare the king the head of the church, but gives him power to "visit, repress, redress, reform, order, erect, restrain and amend heresies, abuses, etc. - gets jurisdicitional power of the pope, including right to define doctrine

Act of first fruits and tenths

Taxes go right to the king

Treason act

1534, treason to deny the king's supremacy - Thomas More charged on this

Act extinguishing the Authority of the Bishop of Rome

1536, anyone who defended former powers of the pope would have their property confiscated.

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