Chapter 10 Biology Study Guide
Terms in this set (74)
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells
Process of reproduction involving a single parent that results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent cell
Type of reproduction in which cells from two parents unite to form the first cell of a new organism
Threadlike structure within the nucleus that contains genetic info that is passed from one generation to the next
Substance found in eukaryote chromosomes that consist of DNA tightly coiled around histones
Series of events in which a cell grows, prepares for division, and divides to form two new daughter cells
Period of the cell cycle between cell divisions
Part of eukaryote cell division during which the cell nucleus divides
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
First and longest stage of mitosis in which the genetic material inside the nucleus condenses and the chromosomes become visible
Region of chromosome where the two chromatids attach
One of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Structure in an animal cell that helps to organize cell division
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
Phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes separate and move to opposite ends of the cell
Phase of mitosis in which the distinct individual chromosomes begin to spread out into a tangle of chromatin
One of a family of proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
One of a group of external regulatory proteins that stimulate the growth and division of cells
Process of programmed cell death. "cell suicide"
Disorder in which some of the body's cells lose the ability to control growth
Mass of rapidly dividing cells that can damage the surrounding tissue
Developing stage of a multicellular organism
Process in which cells become specialized in structure and function. Or. The process by which a stem cell becomes a certain type of cell. When cells become different types of cells
Cells that are able to develop into any type of cell in the body (including the cells that make up the extra embryotic membranes and placenta)
Cells that are capable of developing into most, but not all, of the body's cell types
Cell with limited potential to develop into many types of differentiated cells
Stage of early development in mammals that consists of a hollow ball of cells
Unspecialized cell that can give rise to one or more types of specialized cells
What would happen if cells kept growing?
If cells continued to grow, DNA would have a much harder time getting around the cell. Also Homeostasis would become difficult. The larger the cell becomes the more demands the cell places on its DNA
- Living cells store critical info in DNA
- As a cell grows that info is used to build the molecules needed for cell growth
- As size increases the demands on that info grows as well. If a cell were to grow without limit an "information crisis" would occur.
Division of the Cell
What are the two cells called that are produced by a parent cell splitting?
What must a cell do before it divides?
It must copy its DNA before it divides so that each daughter cell has its own copy of the DNA
- Is reproduction that involves a single parent producing offspring. The offspring are produced are genetically identical to the single parent
- Both prokaryote and eukaryote single celled organisms and many multicellular organisms can reproduce asexually
- Reproduction is quick and produces large numbers of offspring
- In sexual reproduction offspring are produces by the fusion of 2 sex cells one from each of two parents these fuse into a single cell before the offspring can grow
- The offspring produced inherit some genetic information from both parents. This diversity helps to ensure the survival of the species
- Most animals and plants and many single celled
organisms reproduce sexually
What is the role of a chromosome in cell division?
Chromosomes make it possible to separate DNA precisely during cell division
DNA is carried by what?
How many chromosomes does every organism have?
Cells of every organism have a specific number of chromosome.
Don't have a Nuclei. Instead their DNA molecules are found in the cytoplasm. Most prokaryotes contain a single circular DNA molecule or chromosome that contains most of the cell's genetic info
In eukaryotic cells chromosomes are located in the nucleus and are made up of chromatin
Highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes.
Pieces of identical DNA that are crucial in the process of cell replication and division.
Any duplication of a region of DNA that contains a gene.
A structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones.
Another term for superhelix
-Preparing for division
-Division to form two daughter cells
When DNA replication is complete
Eukaryote Cell Cycle
Cells increase in size and synthesize (make) new proteins and organelles
Synthesis phase new DNA is synthesized when the chromosomes are replicated
Many of the organelles and molecules required foe cell division are produced
In eukaryotic cell division occurs in 2 stages Mitosis and Cytokinesis
The division of the cell's nucleus
The division of the cytoplasm
A fanlike microtubule that helps separate the chromatids
a. During prophase the 1st phase of mitosis the duplicated chromosome condenses and becomes visible
b. The centrioles move to opposite sides of nucleus and help organize the spindle
c. The spindle forms and DNA strands attach at a point called the centromere
d. The nucleolus disappears and nuclear envelop breaks down
a. During metaphase the second phase of mitosis the centromeres of the duplicated chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
b. The spindle fibers connect the centromere of each chromosome to the two poles of the spindle
a. During Anaphase the third phase of mitosis the centromeres are pulled apart and the chromatids separate to become individual chromosomes
b. The chromosomes separate into two groups near the poles of the spindle
a. During Telophase the fourth phase of mitosis the chromosomes spread out into a triangle of chromatin
b. A nuclear envelop reforms around each cluster of chromosomes
c. It does this ASAP
-The cell membrane is drawn in until the cytoplasm is punched into two equal parts
-Each part contains its own nucleus and organelles
Division in plant cells is the same except it forms a plate in the middle and separates instead of pinching off
A Family of proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle
Proteins that respond to events inside the cell. They allow the cell cycle to proceed only once certain processes have happened inside the cell
Proteins that respond to events outside the cell. They direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle
External regulators that stimulate growth and division of cells. they are important during development and wound healing
A process of programmed cell death
1. Apoptosis plays a role in development by shaping the structure of tissues and organs in plants and animals. For example the foot of a mouse is shaped the way it is partly because the toes undergo apoptosis during tissue development
Cancer in depth
Cancer cells do not respond to the signals that regulate the growth of most cells. As a result the cell divides uncontrollably
Cancer is a disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control cell growth
Cancer cells divide uncontrollably to form a mass of cells called a tumor
A tumor that is noncancerous
It doesn't spread to surrounding healthy tissue
It's cancerous, it invades and destroys surrounding healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body
The spread of cancer cells is called Metastasis
Cancer cells absorb nutrients needed by other cells block nerve connections and prevent organs from functioning
Causes of Cancer
1. Defective genes
2. Smoking, radiation exposure, etc.
3. A damaged gene
There are a lot of stem cells in bone marrow.