Professional Studies Exit Exam

What are the most appropriate reasons for choosing teaching as a profession?
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Terms in this set (42)
John Dewey: Thought that curriculum should be relevant to student's lives, he believed that education was life itself.
Benjamin Franklin: Founded libraries and schools, and advocated for female and African-American education.
William McGuffey: College professor and president who is best known for writing the McGuffey Readers, the first widely used series of elementary school-level textbooks.
Horace Mann: he ensured that all children could/would receive a basic education that would be funded by the local taxes. He spearheaded the idea that all citizens should have the right to attend a tax-supported elementary school.
What is a necessary component of experimental research?The most important of these elements are manipulation and control. Treatment Groups, Control GroupsMany psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often quite constructive in nature. Be prepared to identify scenarios that illustrate construction in learning as well as those that do not necessarily involve construction in learning.Mr. McFarland asked his third graders...What is the three-component model of memory?Sensory register (attention) Working Memory (central executive) Long Term Memory (encoding/retreviel)What is positive reinforcement? Be prepared to identify scenarios based upon positive reinforcement as well as those in which positive reinforcement does not occur.Positive reinforcement is when a behavior is encouraged by rewards. Example of positive reinforcement is giving praise for a good assignment (causing the student to want to continue good work).What is metacognitive activity and what are some examples?Metacognitive activity is thinking about thinking. It is awareness and analysis of one's own learning or thinking.What is scaffolding? Also be prepared to identify scenarios in which teachers use scaffolding to help their students learn.Scaffolding is a process in which a teacher adds support for students in order to enhance learning and provide aid in mastering the task. Some examples of scaffolding is when reading to students you might discuss some key vocabulary or read and discuss what is going on in the book.Several teachers complain, "Our students just aren't motivated." Is it possible that these teachers are describing their students accurately? Why or why not?I think there are ways to find motivation for each student, it just take time and patients. I believe that some students might seem unmotivated due to frustration, inside or outside of the classroom. Based on the question, it could be possible, but each student is different and it is the teachers responsibly to find ways to motivate our students.Who are the students who suffer the most from tracking practices?Those from groups who are disproportionately placed in low-ability groups.What does each of the following legislative acts provide: Title I, Title III, Title VII, Title IX?Title I: Amended by the ESEA provides financial assistance to local educational agencies and schools with high numbers or high percentages of children from low-income families to help ensure that all children meet challenging state academic standards. Title III: is a part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended by the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015 (ESSA). The purpose of Title III is to help ensure that English learners (ELs) attain English language proficiency and meet state academic standards. Title VII: The legislation that declared that discrimination based on "race, color, national origin, or sex" was prohibited. Title IX: The legislation that required that men and women receive equal pay for the same job, but did not prevent discrimination in who was hired. (Action for sexual equality in schools)The unstated norms, values, and beliefs about the social relations of school and classroom life that are transmitted to students are known as what?Hidden/Implicit CurriculumBe able to recognize the most relevant or "best" example of the language development standard.Teachers respecting native languages and dialects and building on them to teacher students patterns of discourse in schools.What criteria are used to determine if individuals have an intellectual disability?Evaluation of intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. Intelligence tests used (test). Diagnostic Adaptive Behavior Scale (DABS) used for students to determine conceptual, social, and practical skills.What are some strategies that help children with autism function better in the classroom?ABA : Applied Behavioral Analysis- stimulus (cue), response, reinforcing stimulus or consequence Avoid sensory overload Use Visuals Limit Distractions Make learning objectives obvious in the classroomWhat is the plan developed specifically for a particular child that includes the goals and objectives for school year known as?IEP: Individualized Education ProgramWhat does the acronym IDEA stand for?Individuals with Disabilities Education ActWhat are examples of physical disabilities?Arthritis, Head Injury (TBI), Spina Bifada, MS, Blind, DeafWhat is the process that involves three tiers to assist students struggling in the classroom and determine if they need to be tested for special education services?RTI: Response to Intervention Tier 1: (High-Quality Classroom Instruction and Screening) which is when students are instructed with highly qualified individuals in a regular classroom setting to verify that the instruction isn't the problem. Tier 2: (Targeted Interventions) is when it is provided in a small group setting in addition to instruction in the classroom. Tier 3: (Intensive Intervention and Comprehension Evaluation) which is when students are receiving individualized interventions that target the students skill deficit and if the student does not meet the target then they are referred to a comprehension evaluation and will be considered for special education eigibity.What are the two main components of an IEP that are used to guide instruction by the IEP facilitators?Students present level of performance, How will progress be measured, Annual Goals, Special Education Services, Related and Supplementary Services.What educator is best known for a focus on educating the whole child and on the individual in a democratic society?John DeweyWhat are formative assessments? Summative assessments? Informal assessments? Pre-assessments?Formative Assessment: Assessment conducted at various points during the implementation of a learning sequence. (Rubrics or scoring guides are used to inform students of learning progress and determine the success of a lesson) Summative Assessment: are given at the end of a lesson or unit when you want to sum up what the student has learned, and then determine a grade. (tests are used to sum up the lesson and determine a grade.) Informal Assessment: Informal assessment is an intuitive evaluation method, where the teacher assesses students without measuring their performance against some rubric or metric. The structure of informal evaluation methods allows teachers to observe the student's progress at different points in the learning period. (Spontaneous, day-to-day observations of what students say and do in the classroom settings.) Pre-assessment: Pre-assessment is a test taken by students before a new unit to find out what the students need more instruction on and what they may already know. A pre-assessment, is a way to save teachers time within the classroom when teaching new material. (Gives us an understanding of what students know about the topic before teaching the lesson.)What are the distinguishing principles of the following educational philosophies: Perennialism, Essentialism, Progressivism, Social Reconstructionism?Perennialism: A teacher believing that students are best educated when they study the ideas that have endured through history, such as math, science, and great literature. (Intellectual Development, abstract thought, ideas. Draws from traditional philosophy of Idealism) Essentialism: Some schools strongly emphasize basic skills, such as reading, writing, math, and now, even computer literacy. Knowledge and Skills, rational thought, facts. Draws from traditional philosophy of Realism. Material realities, natural law. Back to Basics, literacy/numeracy, cultural literacy. Teacher as Expert/Authority.) Progressivism: Constructivism is a learning theory which says that learners don't behave like tape recorders. i.e., they don't store information in their memories in the same form as they heard or read it. Rather, they create understanding that makes sense to them by relating what they hear or read to what they already know, and they store in memory the understanding they created for themselves. Social Reconstruction: Self-definition and choice, Draws from traditional Philosophies of Existentialism (Personal values), Humanistic, Egalitarian Curriculum, teacher as advocate, activistWhy is the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy useful in planning instruction?The Revised Bloom's Taxonomy provides active verbs that promote "doing." When planning instruction we want to provide the ways students will learn or use the instructions. These are used while creating SWBAT for instruction. (it defines what cognitive levels should be addressed, lower levels for younger students and higher levels for older students.)Lesson plans, pacing guides, and syllabi are all examples of curriculum.Explicit CurriculumBe able to identify well-written learning objectives....Be prepared to recognize characteristics of the following instructional strategies: concept attainment, cooperative learning, direct instruction, and inquiry.Concept attainment: designed to clarify ideas and to introduce aspects of content. It engages students in formulating a concept through the use of illustrations, word cards or specimens called examples Cooperative Learning: Helps teachers lay the foundation for students success in a world that depends on collaboration and cooperation. This provides opportunities for students to interact in ways that enhance and deepen their learning Direct Instruction: uses a variety of techniques in a fairly structured manner to promote learning of fundamental skills. This approach involves small and carefully sequenced steps, fast pacing, and a great deal of teacher-student interaction. Inquiry: Inquiry-based learning is a learning process that engages students by making real-world connections through exploration and high-level questioning. It is an approach to learning that encourages students to engage in problem-solving and experiential learning.What is the primary premise of each of the following: Cardinal Principles, Every Child Succeeds Act, No Child Left Behind, IDEA?Cardinal Principles: Health, command of fundamental processes, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure and ethical character. Every Child Succeeds Act: The main purpose is to make sure public schools provide a quality of educations for all kids and this provides the states with more of a say in how schools account for their students achievement. No Child Left Behind: Is a U.S. legislation that was passed in 2001 that mandates regular assessments of basic skills to determine whether students are making adequate yearly progress in relation to state-determined standards in reading, math, and science. I.D.E.A: Provide a free appropriate public education to all students with Disabilities, Educate students with disabilities in the same schools and basically the same programs as students without disabilities, Put into place certain procedural safeguards for parents of students with disabilities.Be able to recognize examples of the following: analytic strategies, advanced organizers, funds of knowledge, and schema.Analytic Strategies: specifies the long term decisions an organization makes about how it uses its data to take actions that satisfy its organizational vision and mission; specifically, the selection of analytic opportunities by an organization and the integration of its analytic operations Advanced Organizers: Is a tool used to introduce the lesson topic and illustrate the relationship between what the students are about to learn and the information they have already learned. Funds of Knowledge: Can include learning how to make gnocchi from scratch or how to keep score at a curling match Schema: Is a general idea about something, its plural form is schemata. Teachers use this to activate prior knowledge, link new information to old information.What are the guiding principles about how to use technology in the classroom to promote literacy?Guiding Principle #1: Technology—when used appropriately—can be a tool for learning. Guiding Principle #2: Technology should be used to increase access to learning opportunities for all children. Guiding Principle #3: Technology may be used to strengthen relationships among parents, families, early educators, and young children. Guiding Principle #4: Technology is more effective for learning when adults and peers interact or co-view with young children.Readers engage in thinking strategies to understand the content while they are reading. What are examples of thinking strategies?Activating, inferring, monitoring-clarifying, questioning, search-selecting, summarizing, and visualizing-organizing. Efferent and AestheticWhat are examples of before-reading strategies that teachers need to teach students to utilize when reading content material?Establish purpose, Identify and discuss difficult words, phrases, and concepts in text, preview the text (by surveying the title, illustrations, and unusual text structures) to make predictions about its context, Think, talk, and write about the topic of the text.What are examples of after-reading strategies that teachers could engage students in to ensure they understand the material they read?Guide discussion of the reading, Ask students to recall and tell in their own words important parts of the text, Offer students opportunities to respond to the reading in various ways, including through writing, dramatic play, music, readers' theatre, videos, debate, or pantomime.What does each of the following terms mean: readability, Lexile, Interest Inventory, suitability?Readability: Is about the reader, the ease with which a reader can successfully decipher, process, and make meaning of the text read. Typographical features of the text are critical; letter shape, size, and spacing all meaningfully impact fluency and comprehension. Lexile: A Lexile measure is a valuable tool for teachers, parents, and students. It serves two unique functions: It is the measure of how difficult a text is OR a student's reading ability level. Interest Inventory: A questionnaire with a series of items about your likes and dislikes. They will measure, for example, your interests regarding leisure activities, work-related tasks, people with whom you prefer to work, and school subjects. Suitability: Defines how ell premises meet the needs of pupils, teachers and other users and how they contribute towards raising standards of education.