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BIOL 1114 Week 6 Ch23
Terms in this set (131)
The study of the parts that compose an organism's body is called
How are anatomy and physiology related?
One describes structures and the other describes how they work.
Place the following levels of biological organization in order from least inclusive level (the smallest structure) at the top to most inclusive level (largest structure) at the bottom.
4. Organ Systems
A tissue is composed of
groups of cells interacting to provide a specific function.
Select all of the following that are organs.
What is anatomy?
study of an organism's structure
What describes an organ system?
two or more organs functionally joined
Physiology is the study of
a structure's function.
Connective, muscle, and tissues are the four broad categories of tissues in animals.
Cells work together to provide a specific function in , which interact to form an organ.
Protection, absorption, and secretion are functions of ______ tissue, and attachment, support, transport, and storage are functions of ______ tissue.
A group of cells interacting and functioning together form a(n)
A(n) ______ consists of two or more interacting tissues that function as a unit.
The stomach, small intestine, and the large intestine interact to form part of a(n)
The extracellular matrix of animals cells is a mixture of ______.
interstitial fluid and protein fibers
Select the four main categories of vertebrate tissues.
Match each tissue type to its correct function.
Epithelial tissue - cover interior and exterior surfaces
Connective tissue - support, adhesion, attachment, transportation of substances
Muscle tissue - movement
Nervous tissue - rapid communication among cells
Select all of the following that are components of interstitial fluid.
Match the epithelial tissue with the correct description.
simple squamous-single layer, flattened; lines blood vessels
simple cuboidal-single layer, found in glands
stratified squamous-multiple layers, found in outer layer of skin
simple columnar-single layer; lines digestive tract
What type of cells are found on the body's surfaces?
In animal tissues, cells are embedded in a(n) ______ matrix that is composed of interstitial fluid and protein fibers, such as collagen and elastin.
Select all the functions of epithelial tissues.
The liquid portion of the extracellular matrix is called ______, which originates as plasma that leaks out of blood vessels.
Epithelial tissue composed of flattened cells in multiple layers is called ______ epithelial tissue.
Select all the locations where epithelial cells are found.
external body surfaces
covering of organs
lining of hollow organs
Organs that are made of epithelial tissue and that secrete different substances such as sweat, saliva, hormones, breast milk, and tears, are called
______ tissues have a variety of functions, including secretion, nutrient absorption, and protection, depending on their location in the body.
What makes epithelial tissues different from all other types of tissues?
They have a free surface exposed to the outside or to a body cavity.
What type of tissue always has a free surface that is exposed to either the outside of the body or to a space within the body?
Glands are made from what kind of tissue?
True or false: Cancer in epithelial tissues are uncommon.
tissue is the most widespread tissue type in the human body and consists of cells scattered within extracellular matrix.
Cells of ______ tissue often form leak-proof sheets that aid their function as a lining of body tissues.
Select all of the following that are functions of different types of connective tissue.
fill spaces between organs
provide flexible and firm support
transport gases, nutrients, and wastes
While one side of epithelial tissue has a free surface, the other side is anchored to underlying tissues by a layer of extracellular matrix called the
A carcinoma is a type of cancer in tissue.
Select all of the following that are connective tissues.
What type of tissue consists of cells that are scattered in extracellular matrix rather than being attached to one another?
Select all the functions of loose connective tissue.
binds tissues together
fills space between organs
Match each type of connective tissue to its function.
blood - transports gases, nutrients, wastes, and hormones
cartilage - provides flexible support, such as at the ends of bones, in the embryonic skeleton, and on the ears and trachea
bone - provides firm support and builds the skeleton
adipose tissue - stores fat for energy and insulation
loose and dense connective tissue - holds organs in place, forms tendons and ligaments, connects tissues
What connective tissue is composed of cells and cell fragments traveling in a liquid plasma?
connective tissue binds other tissues together and fills space between organs, while connective tissue builds ligaments and tendons.
tissue consists of cells that contract when protein filaments inside the cells slide past one another.
Select all of the following that are functions of dense connective tissue.
forms ligaments and tendons
connects bones and muscles
The connective tissue that stores fat is called
Besides contracting, muscle cells are important for their ability to generate
The different types of muscle tissue are composed of unique cells. Match each muscle type to the description of its cells.
cardiac muscle - short, striated, branched muscle cells with only one nucleus
skeletal muscle - long, striated muscle cells containing many nuclei
smooth muscle - long spindle-shaped cells that are not striated
What is a key characteristic of muscle tissue?
cells that contract
Match the muscle type with its description.
skeletal - voluntary and striated
cardiac - involuntary and striated
smooth - involuntary and not striated
Select all the functions of muscle tissue.
move tissues and organs
body temperature regulation
Match each type of muscle tissue to its function.
cardiac muscle- found in the walls of the heart and contract the atria and ventricles
smooth muscle- slow, involuntary movements of digestive tract and arteries
skeletal muscle - attached to and move the bones of the skeleton under voluntary control
Select all of the following that are types of muscle tissue.
tissue detects stimuli, transmits information in the form of electrical signals throughout the body, and interprets the information.
What feature is unique to cardiac muscles?
They occur only in the heart.
Select all the types of cells that compose nervous tissue.
What is the function of neuroglia?
support, assist, and insulate neurons
Cardiac muscle, muscle, and muscle are the three types of muscle tissue.
What is the function of a neuron?
A neuron receives and transmits information in a network.
What is the main function of nervous tissue?
sense, convey, and interpret information
The system uses hormones to communicate signals throughout the body that affect development, metabolism, and many other functions, and the system uses electrical impulses to rapidly communicate information throughout the body.
The two main types of cells in nervous tissue are ______.
neurons and neuroglia
_____ cells are a type of nerve cells that support neurons and can form myelin sheaths that speed conduction of neural impulses.
The ______ system produces communicating signals that travel within the circulatory system and are long-lasting, and the ______ system produces short-lived signals that travel rapidly.
The principal cells in the nervous system that form communication networks, receive information, and transmit information are called
The ______ system consists of glands that release hormones that affect metabolism, reproduction, and mental health.
The ______ system consists of bones and cartilage that serve as attachment points for muscles.
The nervous and endocrine systems both play a role in
communicating signals throughout the body.
Select the two systems that support and move the body.
What organ system moves body parts and supports posture?
Select the two systems that coordinate communication between other systems.
Select all of the following that apply to the nervous system.
includes sensory receptors that detect stimuli
relays input to spinal cord and brain
sends impulses from brain to muscles and glands
The system breaks down food into small molecules that can be used for energy or growth.
Select all the functions of the skeletal system.
stores mineral such as calcium
protects soft tissues
framework for muscle attachments
produces some components of the blood
The muscular and skeletal systems play what role in the body?
support and movement
Select the systems that work together to acquire energy.
The system not only moves body parts, but heat released by its actions also helps maintain body temperature.
Select all of the following that are components of the circulatory system.
The ______ system functions to exchange gases with the atmosphere.
What organ system dismantles food and absorbs molecules from the food?
Select all the functions of the urinary system.
maintain blood pressure and pH
eliminate toxins and waste
adjust ion concentrations
True or false: The integumentary system protects the body.
What function do the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems all have in common?
acquisition of energy
The ______ system transports nutrients and gases to all the tissues of the body through a network of vessels.
What is a function of the respiratory system?
brings O2 to blood and removes CO2 from blood
Select all of the following that are part of the integumentary system.
some types of glands
The ______ system removes the water-soluble waste from the body and balances the concentration of many ions in the blood.
Select all the organ systems that help protect the body by fighting infections, blocking the entry of pathogens, and eliminating wastes.
Select all of the following that the immune system protects the body from.
The system collects excess fluid from the circulatory system and passes it through lymph nodes for cleansing by the immune system.
What system protects underlying tissues from drying out, blocks the entry of microorganisms, and helps maintain body temperature?
Select all of the following that are functions of the reproductive system.
production of eggs or sperm
nurturing developing offspring
The ______ system of the vertebrate body attacks cancer cells, viruses, bacteria, and infected cells.
What system is a bridge between the immune and circulatory systems?
True or false: Each organ system of the body is separate and does not overlap with others.
The system produces the gametes (eggs or sperm) and includes some organs that can produce hormones.
An animal's body consists mostly of
The fluid inside the body that surrounds cells is called ______ fluid.
is the state of internal constancy in the presence of changing external conditions.
A change in an existing condition that triggers action to reverse the change, called _____ feedback, is vital to maintaining _____.
Select all of the following that are components of the uterus, an organ in the reproductive system.
Select all of the places where water is stored in the animal body.
Interstitial fluid is found
inside the body but outside cells.
What acts as a control center in maintaining homeostasis in the vertebrate body?
What describes homeostasis?
What is the role of negative feedback in homeostasis?
trigger a return to normal conditions
What is the role of sensors in homeostasis?
detect changes in a body parameter
A few body functions use positive feedback to
amplify a reaction.
Select all of the effects of body temperatures that are outside an animal's optimum range.
Enzymes function less efficiently.
Reactions may proceed too slowly.
If a sudden change in blood pressure in a vertebrate body occurred, in what order would a response be generated to return blood pressure to normal? Put the sentences in the correct order, beginning with the first step at the top.
1. Sensors detect a change in blood pressure
2. A signal is transmitted to the hypothalamus
3. The hypothalamus sends signals to effectors
4. Effectors produce a change that returns blood pressure to normal
When cells perform aerobic respiration to generate ATP, the temperature of an organism
How are effector cells involved in maintaining homeostasis?
They counteract changes in a system.
In endotherms, most of the heat required to maintain a constant body temperature comes from
feedback is used to amplify a reaction, such as in those involved in blood clotting or childbirth.
When an animal's body has extended exposure to ______, cell membranes become less fluid.
Maintaining constant body temperature, balancing heat gain and loss, is known as
Birds and mammals are examples of
______ regulate their internal body temperature using their metabolism.
Select all of the physiological changes that help both birds and mammals conserve heat.
feathers or fur standing erect
constrict blood vessels in extremities
Select the behavioral mechanisms that can be used by animals to conserve heat.
An ectotherm's main source of heat is _____, and body temperature is adjusted mainly using _____ changes.
Select all of the following that are endotherms.
The vast majority of animals, including all invertebrates, are
Shivering allows animals to
Select all the behavioral strategies that animals can use to cool off.
covering with cool mud
What group of animals has a body temperature that fluctuates with the environment and thus they have lower metabolic rates and require less food?
Ectotherms adjust their internal body temperature by modifying
Select all of the following that are ectotherms.
Select all the disadvantages of ectothermy.
dependent on the environment for body temperature
sluggishness in cold environments
Select all of the physiological changes that help cool a mammal's body.
dilation of blood vessels
What group of animals has a high metabolic rate to keep their bodies at a constant temperature, thus requiring a high energy intake?
Select all the characteristics of endothermic animals.
some can enter torpor
require a great deal of energy
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