Unit 8 Ap Psych

According to the Cannon-Bard theory, the experience of an emotion *
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In an experiment to test the spillover effect, college men were injected with epinephrine prior to spending time with an experimenter's accomplice who acted either euphoric or irritated. Which individuals in this experiment were LEAST likely to experience the emotion demonstrated by the experimenter's accomplice? *
The basic components of emotion are *expressive behaviors, physiological arousal, and conscious experience.Which of the following best explains why both million-dollar lottery winners and paraplegics report similar levels of happiness? *the adaptation-level phenomenonThe emotions of anger and fear involve similar *patterns of autonomic arousalThe feel-good, do-good phenomenon refers to the fact that when people feel happy they *are more willing to help othersThe three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are *alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.A sense of satisfaction with life is known as *well-beingMen and women students watched film clips that were sad, happy, or frightening. Measures taken during their viewing of films showed that the genders differed the most in their *facial expressions of emotionWhich of the following emotions was NOT recognized as a basic emotion by Carroll Izard? *prideA hormone that increases heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels in times of emergency is *epinephrine.As a member of the diplomatic corps, Alex was given special training in the customs, language, and religions of the undeveloped country where he would be living. However, Alex probably needed little training to correctly interpret his hosts' expressions of emotion as revealed by theirfacial expressionsActivation of the parasympathetic nervous systemslows heart rate and accelerates digestionThe text defines stress asthe process by which we perceive and respond to environmental threats and challengesFear is an alarm system that prepares our bodies to flee from danger, binds us together as families, and protects us from harm. These examples illustrate thatfear is adaptiveAlthough newspapers reported that a murder victim had been stabbed with a knife, two police investigators knew that the actual murder weapon was a letter opener. While carefully monitoring the changes in the heart rate and perspiration level of a prime suspect, the investigators asked him if he typically used a letter opener on his mail. The investigators were making use of theguilty knowledge testEvidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc thatsometimes emotions precede cognition.Research on the nonverbal expression of emotion indicates thatintroverts are better than extraverts at recognizing nonverbal expressions of emotion in others.Researchers have found that certain factors are related to happiness. One of these is that happy people tend tohave a satisfying marriage or close friendshipThe loss of an arm in an automobile accident is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction. Winning a million-dollar casino jackpot is likely to ________ a person's long-term feelings of life satisfaction.have little effect on; have little effect onIn their dispute over the role of cognition in emotion, both Zajonc and Lazarus agree thatsome emotional reactions involve no conscious thinkingOne problem with the use of the polygraph for lie detection is thatanxiety, irritation, and guilt feelings all prompt similar physiological reactivity.Which of the following best illustrates the concept of relative deprivation?Margie was happy with her salary until she heard that her co-worker was making more for the same job.Researchers wanting to stimulate distinct, specific emotions would be most successful if they could do which of the following?stimulate different brain regionsUnlike the low-road brain pathway, the high road for emotional responses extends through thecortexCompared with males, females are more likely to cry and report distress when observing someone in distress. This best illustratesempathyEmployees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their employer. Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger willincrease their hostilityIncreased activity in the right prefrontal cortex is to ________ as increased activity in the left frontal lobe is to ________.disgust; joyAdrenaline and noradrenaline are also referred to as *epinephrine and norepinephrine.Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was "anxious." Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was "falling in love." The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by thetwo factor theoryIt has been suggested that baring the teeth is universally associated with the expression of anger because this ability to convey threats has helped humans to survive. This suggestion best illustrates theevolutionary perspectiveThe fight-or-flight response is to ________ as the general adaptation syndrome is to ________.Walter Cannon; Hans SelyeAfter receiving an unexpected A on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little sister while his parents went out for dinner. This best illustrates thefeel-good, do-good phenomenon.In experiments with adult monkeys who were fearful of snakes and their offspring who were not, Susan Mineka discovered that the younger monkeys developed a fear of snakes through the process ofobservational learningThe idea that an emotion-arousing stimulus is simultaneously routed to the cortex and to the sympathetic nervous system is central to the *Cannon-Bard theory.A psychophysiological illness isany stress-related physical illness, such as hypertensionAfter watching a movie in which a female character is being followed by a man in a dark alley, McKenzie kept looking over her shoulder at passersby as she walked to her car. This experience best illustratesthat stress arises from both the events and our cognitive appraisal of them.Which division of the nervous system arouses the body and mobilizes its energy in emotionally stressful situations?sympatheticCassandra's mother told her, "You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside." This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion.James-LangeType A is to ________ as Type B is to ________hard-driving; easygoingThe emotion of sadness is characterized by negative valence and ________ arousal.lowFollowing a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided each other with emotional support. This reaction best illustratesthe tend-and-befriend response________ proposed that emotions are the result of a physical state.Lazarus and SchachterThe key components of ________ are feelings, behavioral expression, and physiological arousal.emotionsAn individual's personal perception of their overall happiness and life satisfaction is referred to assubjective well-beingAfter breaking up with his girlfriend, Eric came down with a severe respiratory infection. His illness may have been caused to a large extent by a(n) ________ in his body's production of ________.decrease; lymphocytesThe idea that muscles of the face send information to the brain and that this affects the emotion we feel is known asthe facial feedback hypothesisAs people experience positive emotions, an increase in brain activity is most evident in theleft frontal lobe.Ekman found that fear, sadness, joy, anger, disgust, contempt and happiness were *recognized universallyAccording to the Cannon-Bard theory, the conscious experience of emotion ____ the physiological arousal associated with emotions.coincides withRoger is sad, but he does not want to cry in front of his friends because of the ________ he has been taught. *display rulesStanley Schachter's theory of emotion proposes that emotion results when *you cognitively label the arousal and give it emotional meaning.Motivation is defined by psychologists asa need or desire that energizes and directs behavior towards a goalA complex, unlearned, and fixed pattern of behavior common to all members of a species is called a(n)instinctA need refers toa physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal.Which theory most clearly emphasizes the importance of homeostasis in motivation?drive-reduction theoryAbraham Maslow suggested that self-transcendence needs motivate people to strive fortranspersonal reasoningA. L. Washburn swallowed a balloon. When inflated, the balloon filled his stomach and transmitted his stomach contractions to a recording device. Washburn found thathunger pangs accompany feelings of hungerWhen a rat's blood sugar level decreases, the ________ hypothalamus releases the hunger-triggering hormone ________.lateral, orexinWhich of the following events would most likely cause an animal to overeat and become obese?destruction of its ventromedial hypothalamusThe specific body weight maintained automatically by most adults over long periods of time is known as theset pointWhen encouraged to eat their fill of M&M's, people ate more when given a large rather than a small serving scoop. This most clearly reflectsunit biasChiara, a 14-year-old, is of average height but weighs only 80 pounds. She has lost 30 pounds over the last six months by eating very little and running five miles a day. She is determined not to become overweight and ignores her parents' suggestion that she should eat well-balanced meals. Chiara suffers fromanorexia nervosaSixteen-year-old Jill loves ice cream and other rich foods, but she has become increasingly anxious about gaining too much weight. Jill frequently overeats and then intentionally vomits in an attempt to control her weight. Jill most clearly suffers frombulimia nervosaResearchers use biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis to understand eating disorders. The social-cultural level of analysis is especially likely to emphasize that eating disorders are influenced bymass media standards of appearanceIn one experiment, professional actors played the role of either normal-weight or overweight job applicants. Research participants' willingness to hire the applicants revealedgreater discrimination against overweight women than against overweight men.John has a BMI of 35 and is desperate to get it down to at least 25. He is trying a low-sugar, low-carbohydrate diet. John is likely to have difficulty losing weight while dieting becausefat tissue can be maintained by fewer calories than can other body tissues.Research on sex hormones and human sexual behavior indicates thatadult males who suffer castration experience a decline in their sex drive.Ivan just spent an evening watching movies involving attractive women who actually seemed to enjoy being sexually coerced. This experience is most likely to lead him tobe more willing to hurt womenLower rates of pregnancy have been observed among teens who haveparticipated in a service learning program as tutors or teachers' aides.Our sexual attraction toward members of either the same sex or the opposite sex is called oursexual orientationProfessor Fiekema claims that people are genetically predisposed to live in groups because social attachments enhanced the survival and reproductive success of our human ancestors. The professor's suggestion best illustratesthe evolutionary perspectiveAn instinctive behavior is one that isunlearnedLack of body fluids is to thirst as ________ is to ________.need; drivePositive and negative environmental stimuli that motivate behavior are calledincentivesWhich theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies?arousal theoryFinancial satisfaction is more strongly predictive of well-being in poor nations than in wealthy ones. This fact would most clearly be anticipated byhierarchy of needs theoryInhibition of hunger is to overeating as ________ is to ________.destruction of the lateral hypothalamus; destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamusThe secretion of ghrelin ________ appetite, and the secretion of obestatin ________ appetite.stimulates;suppressesWhen an organism's weight falls below its set point, the organism is likely to experience a(n) ________ hunger and a(n) ________ its basal metabolic rate.increase in; decrease inA violent illness that follows our eating of a particular food is likely to influence our taste preferences. This illustrates that taste preferences are influenced bylearning experiencesStudies show that people tend to eat much more in social situations, such as parties and celebrations. Which psychological principle best explains why we overeat in these situations?social facilitationUnlike those with bulimia nervosa, those with binge-eating disorders are not likely to ________ following binge eating.engage in excessive exerciseAn integrated understanding of rising obesity rates in terms of set points, culturally learned taste preferences, and the ready availability of large food portions is best illustrated bya bio psychosocial approachWhen people's images on a video monitor are widened to make them look fatter, observers perceive them asless sincere and less friendlyResearch on obesity and weight control indicates thatoverweight people typically suffer from a lack of willpower and self-discipline.One gene scan of 40,000 people worldwide identified a variant of a gene called FTO. This gene nearly doubles the risk ofobesityResearchers have observed that the incidence of obesity and diabetes among 50,000 nurses was predicted by theirTV-viewing habitsSecretion of the female hormones, the estrogens, peaks duringovulationBrain scans of people viewing erotic material reveal a more active ________ in men than in women.amygdalaHomosexuality itself is not considered a mental disorder. However, adolescent homosexuals are at increased risk for which of the following?attempting suicideA mother's immune system may have a defensive response to substances produced by male fetuses. This is most likely to contribute tothe fraternal birth-order effectSheila is more fearful of loneliness than of remaining in a physically abusive relationship with her boyfriend. This best illustrates the potentially harmful impact of ________ needs.belongingnessThe anterior cingulate cortex shows increased activity in response to both physical pain andostracismThe ________ phase of the sexual response cycle involves the swelling of blood vessels in the pelvic region.excitementAnnie has gone in a diet, initially she lost much weight, but now her weight seems to have stabilized, this is probably becauseshe has reached the lower end of her set pointThe correct order of the stages of human sexual response as reported by Masters and Johnson areexcitement, plateau, orgasm, resolutionMaslow's theory of motivation has been criticized as a theory of motivation becausean individual can forgo a need in a lower level and still fulfill a need higher along the hierarchy.Identify the case below in which the more basic need is listed before the "higher" need, according to Maslow's theory of motivation.attachment before esteemBy definition, anorexia nervosa involves a person who weighs less than ________ of their ideal body weight and still is concerned about being fat.85 %