68 terms

# Introduction to Statistics

Liberty University's Dr. Moone's 1st quiz in class.
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Plural
Statistics are numbers
Singular
Statistics is the study of data
Exploratory Statistics
The procedures used to organize and summarize numerical data
Inferential Statistics
The methods used to find out something about a population, based on a sample, generally we prefer to use a random sample for making inferences
Population
The set representing all measurements of interest to the researcher
Sample
Is a subset of measurements selected from the population of interest
Parameter
Refers to a quantity that characterizes a population.
Estimators
Refers to a quantity characterizes a sample.
X with a line on top
Sample Mean symbol
M
Population Mean symbol
N
Population symbol
n
Sample size
s2
Population Variance
s
Population Standard Deviation
Census
A sample consisting of the entire population
Constants
When observations on the same phenomenon do not change in successive trials, the phenomenon is called?
Variables
When observations on the same phenomenon vary from trial to trial, the phenomenon is called a?
Qualitative Variable
A variable whose observations vary in kind but not in degree
Quantitative Variable
A variable whose observations vary in magnitude from trial to trial
Nominal Level
A measurement that is used to refer to data that can only be classified into categories.
Ordinal Level
Observations are ordered or ranked
Interval Level
Observations ordered in such a way that distances between them are meaningful
Ration Level
Observations ordered in such a way that not only distances between them are meaningful but also ratios can be formed with levels of the scale
Statistics
A Collection of procedures and Principles for gaining and processing information in order to make decisions when faced with uncerntainty.
Bias
Does not represent the entire population fairly
Ratio
Result of one number or quantity divided by another
Proportion
a special type of ratio in which the denominator includes the numerator.
Percentage
The amount, number or rate of something, regarded as part of a total of 100
Rate
The occurrence of a particular outcome is found by dividing the actual number of occurrences by the number of possible outcomes.
Population Mean
Average of all individuals in the population
Sample mean
Average of all individuals in the sample
Pth Percentile
The distribution is the value such that p percent of observations fall at or below it
Outliers
Individual observations that fall well outside the overall pattern of data
Population Geometric Mean
a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers.
Random
Any value which we cannot predict exactly
Random Process
Any experiment or process which produces some unpredictable or random values
Deterministic Process
Any experiment or process which produces values which can all be predicted exactly
Inference
Induction using data from a random process or experiment
Outcome
Each of the distinct results of an experiment
Sample Space
Set of all possible outcomes of an experiment
Event
A collection of outcome or subset of the sample space.
Mutually Exclusive
The occurrence of any one event means that none of the others can occur at the same time
n and
u or
if two events A and B are not mutually exclusive
Law of multiplication
two events A, and B are independent if the occurrence of one event has no effect on the chance of occurrence of the other event.
Mutually Exclusive
_____ events cannot occur simultaneously
A or B
Venn- A, middle, B are shaded.
A and B
A and not B
Venn- only A is shaded without middle.
Not A and B
Venn- only B is shaded and not middle
not A
Venn- Everything but A and middle is shaded
Not B
Venn- Everything but B and middle is shaded
Not A and Not B
Venn- Only the outside is shaded
Not A or Not B
Venn- Everything but middle is shaded
Not A or B
Venn- Only outside is shaded this is a (or)
Not A and B
Venn- everthing but middle this is a (and)
Inferencial Statistics
What is the branch of statistics called for which we draw conclusions from sample data?
Nominal
Political Party Affiliation is an example of what level of measurement?
Ordinal
Categories of gross annual income: Superior/ good/ average/ poor isan example of what level of measurement?
P(A) + P(B)- P(A and B)= P(A or B)
Addition Law's equation if they are not mutually exclusive
P(A) + P(B)= P(A or B)
Addition Law's equation if they are Mutually exclusive
P(A) x P(B)= P(A and B)
Law of Multiplication equation
P(A l B) = P(A and B) / P(B)= P(A)
Conditional Probability's equation
Independent
With replacement of what is in the event
Dependent
Without Replacement of what is in the event
Discrete
The number of pencils produced daily (classify)
Continuous
The amount of rainfall in a month (classify)