Liberty University's Dr. Moone's 1st quiz in class.

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Plural

Statistics are numbers

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Singular

Statistics is the study of data

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Exploratory Statistics

The procedures used to organize and summarize numerical data

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Inferential Statistics

The methods used to find out something about a population, based on a sample, generally we prefer to use a random sample for making inferences

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Population

The set representing all measurements of interest to the researcher

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Sample

Is a subset of measurements selected from the population of interest

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Parameter

Refers to a quantity that characterizes a population.

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Estimators

Refers to a quantity characterizes a sample.

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X with a line on top

Sample Mean symbol

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s

Population Standard Deviation

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Census

A sample consisting of the entire population

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Constants

When observations on the same phenomenon do not change in successive trials, the phenomenon is called?

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Variables

When observations on the same phenomenon vary from trial to trial, the phenomenon is called a?

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Qualitative Variable

A variable whose observations vary in kind but not in degree

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Quantitative Variable

A variable whose observations vary in magnitude from trial to trial

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Nominal Level

A measurement that is used to refer to data that can only be classified into categories.

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Ordinal Level

Observations are ordered or ranked

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Interval Level

Observations ordered in such a way that distances between them are meaningful

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Ration Level

Observations ordered in such a way that not only distances between them are meaningful but also ratios can be formed with levels of the scale

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Statistics

A Collection of procedures and Principles for gaining and processing information in order to make decisions when faced with uncerntainty.

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Bias

Does not represent the entire population fairly

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Ratio

Result of one number or quantity divided by another

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Proportion

a special type of ratio in which the denominator includes the numerator.

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Percentage

The amount, number or rate of something, regarded as part of a total of 100

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Rate

The occurrence of a particular outcome is found by dividing the actual number of occurrences by the number of possible outcomes.

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Population Mean

Average of all individuals in the population

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Sample mean

Average of all individuals in the sample

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Pth Percentile

The distribution is the value such that p percent of observations fall at or below it

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Outliers

Individual observations that fall well outside the overall pattern of data

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Population Geometric Mean

a type of mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers.

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Random

Any value which we cannot predict exactly

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Random Process

Any experiment or process which produces some unpredictable or random values

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Deterministic Process

Any experiment or process which produces values which can all be predicted exactly

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Inference

Induction using data from a random process or experiment

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Outcome

Each of the distinct results of an experiment

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Sample Space

Set of all possible outcomes of an experiment

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Event

A collection of outcome or subset of the sample space.

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Mutually Exclusive

The occurrence of any one event means that none of the others can occur at the same time

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n and

Must be shaded Twice

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Additional Law

if two events A and B are not mutually exclusive

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Law of multiplication

two events A, and B are independent if the occurrence of one event has no effect on the chance of occurrence of the other event.

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Mutually Exclusive

_____ events cannot occur simultaneously

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A or B

Venn- A, middle, B are shaded.

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A and B

Venn- middle only shaded

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A and not B

Venn- only A is shaded without middle.

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Not A and B

Venn- only B is shaded and not middle

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not A

Venn- Everything but A and middle is shaded

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Not B

Venn- Everything but B and middle is shaded

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Not A and Not B

Venn- Only the outside is shaded

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Not A or Not B

Venn- Everything but middle is shaded

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Not A or B

Venn- Only outside is shaded this is a (or)

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Not A and B

Venn- everthing but middle this is a (and)

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Inferencial Statistics

What is the branch of statistics called for which we draw conclusions from sample data?

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Nominal

Political Party Affiliation is an example of what level of measurement?

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Ordinal

Categories of gross annual income: Superior/ good/ average/ poor isan example of what level of measurement?

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P(A) + P(B)- P(A and B)= P(A or B)

Addition Law's equation if they are not mutually exclusive

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P(A) + P(B)= P(A or B)

Addition Law's equation if they are Mutually exclusive

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P(A) x P(B)= P(A and B)

Law of Multiplication equation

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P(A l B) = P(A and B) / P(B)= P(A)

Conditional Probability's equation

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Independent

With replacement of what is in the event

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Dependent

Without Replacement of what is in the event

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Discrete

The number of pencils produced daily (classify)

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Continuous

The amount of rainfall in a month (classify)