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Genetics: punnett square vocabulary
Vocabulary (Chapter 8): character, trait, true-breeding, homozygous, heterozygous, hybridization, Law of Segregation, alleles, dominant, recessive, Punnett square, phenotype, genotype, testcross, monohybrid cross, dihybrid cross, Law of Independent Assortment, complete dominance, incomplete dominance, codominance, Tay-Sachs disease, pleiotropy, epistasis, multiple alleles, polygenic inheritance, quantitative characters, multifactorial characters, pedigree, carriers, albinism, cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell disease, Huntington's disease, achondroplasia, amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
After attending lectures and studying the chapter, the student should be able to:
1. Define diploid and state which cells in your body are diploid.
2. State the number of chromosomes in your diploid cells and state how many of those
chromosomes came from your father and how many came from your mother.
3. Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes, state how many of each are in
your diploid cells, and state the sex-chromosome combinations that are in human males
and human females.
4. Describe an individual's karyotype.
5. Explain the relationship between genes and chromosomes.
6. Explain the relationship between genes and alleles.
7. Describe linked genes.
8. State the number of alleles you have for each gene in your diploid cells and state how
many of those alleles came from your father and how many came from your mother.
9. Distinguish between an individual's phenotype and genotype.
10. Distinguish between autosomal traits and sex-linked traits.
11. Distinguish between complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance.
12. Describe the multiple allele inheritance pattern of the human ABO blood type.
13. Describe and give an example of polygenic inheritance.
14. Describe and give an example of epistasis.
15. Describe and give an example of pleiotropy.
16. Describe a pedigree and use a pedigree chart to determine patterns of inheritance.
17. List the 4 steps used in genetics problems to determine offspring possibilities.
18. Use the 4-step genetics-problem-solving process to work single-gene cross and 2-gene
cross genetics problems, including monohybrid and dihybrid crosses.
19. Give examples of and work genetics problems relating to each of the following human
a. autosomal and sex-linked traits(chapter 15);
b. normal traits and genetic disorders;
c. traits with multiple alleles in the population;
d. recessively-inherited and dominantly-inherited traits; and,
e. traits with complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance.
Vocabulary (chapter 15): sex-linked genes, duchene muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Barr body, linked genes, nondisjunction, aneuploidy, monosomic, trisomic, polyploidy, deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation, Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome
20. Describe meiotic nondisjunction and explain how this can lead to human chromosomal
21. Describe the human chromosomal abnormalities that lead to Down syndrome, Turner
syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.
22. Describe genomic imprinting and how it affects phenotypic expression of genes.
23. Understand linked genes and why they do not show the same pattern of inheritance as genes located on different chromosomes.