Biology: Chapter 2 (Krista Faber)

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basic unit of matter


in physical science, an atom's central region, which is made up of protons and neutrons


negatively charged particle; located outside the atomic nucleus


atom of an element that has a number of neutrons different from that of other atoms of the same element


substance formed by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definite proportions

Ionic Bond

formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another


atom that has a positive or negative charge

Covalent Bond

bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms


smallest unit of most compounds

Van der Waals forces

a slight attraction that develops between the oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules


substance consisting entirely of one type of atom


attraction between molecules of the same substance


attraction between molecules of different substances; in plants, attraction between unlike molecules


material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined


mixture of two or more substances in which the molecules of the substances are evenly distributed


substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution


substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution


mixture of water and nondissolved materials

pH Scale

measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14


compound that forms hydrogen ions (H+) in solution


compound that produces hydroxide ions (OH+) in solution


weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to help prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH


small unit that can join together with other small units to form polymers


large compound formed from combinations of many monomers


compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms; major source of energy for the human body


single sugar molecule


large macromolecule formed from monosaccharides


macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; includes fats, oils, and waxes

Nucleic Acid

macromolecule containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus


monomer of nucleic acids made up of a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

Ribonucliec Acid (RNA)

single stranded nucleic acid that contains the sugar ribose

Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)

nucleic acid that contains the sugar deoxyribose


macromolecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; needed by the body for growth and repair and to make up enzymes

Amino Acid

compound with an amino group (-NH2) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end

Chemical Reaction

process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals


element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction


element or compound produced by a chemical reaction

Activation Energy

energy needed to get a reaction started


substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction


protein that acts as a biological catalyst


reactant of an enzyme-catalyzed reaction

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