Terms in this set (75)
Mesopotamia is located in present day
Between what two rivers was Mesopotamia located?
Tigris and Euphrates
The origin of the word Mesopotamia is
the land between two rivers
It is not a country or a state, but rather a...
It makes up a large part of the.....
Fertile Crescent in the Middle East
It is about the same size as what state?
Sumer developed around what time?
Sumer is the first known what?
groups of people living together than have:
1) a stable food supply
2)different jobs with different classes of people
3) a government
4) a developed culture
Mesopotamia's climate was...
hot and dry with very few natural resources.
The two rivers were unpredictable often resulting in..
devastating floods which would often ruin harvests.
Floods had an upside...
They left behind minerals that created very fertile soil
Farmers prospered when they learned to use..
irrigation to control the water... by creating:
Irrigation led to
a food surplus
Food surplus led to
growth of community because people could have different jobs
Trade was important to the Sumerians because
they used the barter system to exchange goods.
Because of the lack of natural resources...
Mesopotamians needed to get goods from other lands, and soon many cities began to form in Mesopotamia
Early Mesopotamian cities were called
city-states, which were independent of each other
City-states consisted of...
the city and farmland and villages surrounding it
Qualities of city-states included....
2) each had their own god
3) each had their own government
4) ruled by priests
Priests were in charge of...
2) settling arguments
3) storing surplus grain to distribute in times of drought
4) collecting taxes
5) make sacrifices to Sumerian gods
City-states were set up like...
bulls eyes, with a ziggurat at the ctner
huge, majestic temple considered to be the home of the city's god.
1) had tiers and set of stairs leading to the top
2) only priests were allowed in
3) surrounded by courts where merchants would trade goods
Beyond the ziggurat were...
homes, most of which were
2) made of sun dried mud bricks
3) closely packed together
Wealthier homes had
1) two stories
2) open courtyard
Location of one's home depended on their...
Wealth (the wealthier you were, the closer to the ziggurat you lived)
small, narrow, winding through the city-state
1) surrounded the city-state for protection
2) was locked at night to keep animals and thieves out
Farms were located...
Outside the gate near the rivers
Religion of Mesopotamia
believe in many gods
Number of main and lower gods had by Sumerians
4 main gods
3,000 lower gods
2) viewed as harsh and unpredictable (like the conditions in the environment)
Each city-state had its own
Who could talk to the god(s)?
2) thought to carry out the work of the gods
What was offered to the gods?
2) animal sacrifices
Why were there offerings to the gods?
1) to ensure good crops
2) to ensure a good life
Schools were called
edubbas or tablet houses
Who was taught to write?
Wealthy, young boys (with a few exceptions)
School was important because...
it guaranteed a good job as a scribe (very few people could read or write so scribes were in demand)
Why did Sumerian writing develop?
Because of a need to keep track of business dealings
Early writing started off as
Early writing changed over time into...
wedge shaped symbols used for writing for records, ideas, treaties and legends
a reed used by scribes to press into soft clay tablets
1st written epic was about....
an actual king named Gilgamesh, who came from Uruk, and was on a quest to find immortality; written down around 2,000 BC
There were many battles...
1) between city-states
2) with nomads
an assembly of people to help
An assembly would...
elect a person to lead the battles and act as a temporary king. This was temporary and after the battles were over, he would go back to being a regular man
When city-states found themselves at war so often that...
the priest and the king would share the power
1) priest would handle religious aspects of city-state
2) king would handle the everyday duties of city-state
People saw king as...
having power given to them by the gods
Each city-state was independent until...
King Sargon I from Akkad started to invade all neighboring city-states and take control of them (from Northern Mesopotamia to far east lands - may have reached present-day Egypt)
King Sargon I would take over by...
destroying the cities and burn down the walls
How did the people of Mesopotamia and Sumer feel about King Sargon I?
He was cruel and they resented being controlled by him
Since Sargon controlled all the city-states, Mesopotamia was now considered to be...
an empire (world's first empire!!)
An empire is...
when several regions as ruled by one person.
Sargon passed his power on to his...
son and eventually to his grandson
When and why did the empire fall?
Over a 100 years later and because of all of the revolts within the city-states and the difficulty of protecting so much flat land
Assyria from about 1813-1781 BC
During Samshi-Adad's rule....
goods were traded within Mesopotamia such as cloth for tin, copper, and siler
The King of Babylon was...
all the land and controlled all 24 city-states
a fair and just ruler, but also very strong
Hammurabi rose to power...
around 1792 BC
Who kept track of city-states and reported back to Hammurabi?
judges and governors
Code of Hammurabi
set of 282 laws that all the people of Babylonia were expected to follow
Punishments under the Code of Hammurabi...
were very harsh, ranging from fines to death. Prison was not an option.
What kind of justice did Hammurabi create?
idea of "eye for an eye" - if you committed a crime, the same should be done to you.
Hammurabi varied the punishment for a crime according to...
a person's social status
Laws were written into...
a large stone that was placed at the center of the city for all to see.
What happened to Babylonia after Hammurabi's death?
Both Assyria and Babylonia fell because....
1) both groups of people did not treat the people they conquered well
2) people were exiled
3) the conquered people began to set up rebellions to overthrow them
1) 1st writing system
2) wheel, sailboat, plow to help with farming
3) number system based on 6 (60 seconds, 60 minutes, 360 degrees)
4) 12 month calendar