History Study Guide for 7-1, 7-2, 7-4
Study Guide for the History test for 6th grade...
Terms in this set (23)
Document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government.
bill of rights (definition)
Written list of freedoms the government promises to protect
Articles Of Confederation
First American constitution, passed in 1777; created a loose alliance of 13 independent states; states sent delegates to Congress. Each state had one vote; Congress had limited powers. Congress could declare war, appoint military, and coin money. Congress could not pass laws, they could not tax, or regulate trade. There was NO single person in charge.
Land Ordinance of 1785
Law setting up a system for settling the Northwest Territory (the area North of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi). The area would be divided into townships. Each township would be divided into 36 sections of 1 sq. mile each. The sections would be sold for $640 each. One section in each township was dedicated to the school.
A 1787 law that set up a government for the Northwestern territory, guaranteeing basic rights to settlers and outlawing slavery. It also provided a means for territories to become states. Once a territory has 60,000 free settlers, it could ask to be admitted as a state equal to the (13) original states.
During the post-revolution economic depression, farmers who had borrowed money could not repay their loans or taxes. When the courts seized farms of those who could not pay, they decided to revolt. Daniel Shays, a Massachusetts farmer, organized a revolt which became known as Shays' rebellion in 1786. Many people believed that Shays' Rebellion was evidence that the Articles of Confederation didn't work. To prevent further crisis, leaders called a new convention in Philadelphia in May 1787 that became known as the Constitutional Convention! This stated because of the lack of law and order.
The gathering of state representatives that started on May 25th 1787 in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation. There were 55 delegates from every state except Rhode Island. They met to debate how to organize and govern the country.
Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, Thomas Jefferson, and other leaders who laid the groundwork for the United States were referred to as the Founding Fathers.
"Father of the Constitution"; From Virginia; A skilled politician and a learned scholar; kept a close record of the debates at the Constitutional Convention; Wrote the Constitution. Supporter of the ratification of the Constitution. Author of the Federalist Papers. Author of the Bill of Rights.
The "large state" proposal; Plan at the Constitutional Convention that called for a strong national government with three branches and a two-chamber legislature.
New Jersey Plan
Plan at the Constitutional Convention, favored by smaller states that called for three branches of government with a single chamber legislature.
Branch of government that passes laws.
Branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly.
Branch of government that carries out laws.
Two-House System (Virginia Plan)
The legislative branch has two houses, with seats awarded on the basis of population thus larger states (more populated) would have more votes than smaller states.
Virginia vs New Jersey Plan
Both proposed 3 branches of government, executive, legislative, and judicial. Virginia Plan proposed legislative based on population of the states while New Jersey proposed one house and one vote per state.
Plan at the Constitutional Convention that settled the differences between large and small states. Proposed by Roger Sherman; the compromise included a two house legislature: the upper house, the Senate, provided each state 2 senators. The lower house, the House of Representatives, would be elected by popular vote.
9/13 of the states had to ratify the Constitution before it could go into effect. Delaware was the first state to ratify with Rhode Island last.
People who supported ratifying the Constitution. Federalists believed the Articles of Confederation left too much power with the states, produced a weak central government which would lead to future disputes among states. The new Constitution would give the national government authority it needed to function effectively.
People who opposed the Constitution because it made national government too strong, states too weak, and gave the president too much power. They objected to the lack of Bill of Rights.
A series of essays by federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of ratifying the constitution. These papers remain one of the best discussions of the theory behind the US system of government.
Strong supporter of the Bill Of Rights; wrote Bill Of Rights for Virginia; joined antifederalists after Constitutional Convention refused to add a Bill Of Rights.
Bill Of Rights
First 10 ammendments to the United States Constitution; written by James Madison