# Eye Diseases

During the early postoperative period, a client who has undergone a cataract extraction complains of nausea and severe eye pain over the operative site. What should be the initial nursing action?

1. Call the surgeon.
2. Reassure the client that this is normal.
3. Turn the client onto her or his operative side.
4. Administer the prescribed pain medication and antiemetic.
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During the early postoperative period, a client who has undergone a cataract extraction complains of nausea and severe eye pain over the operative site. What should be the initial nursing action?

1. Call the surgeon.
2. Reassure the client that this is normal.
3. Turn the client onto her or his operative side.
4. Administer the prescribed pain medication and antiemetic.

Rationale: Severe pain or pain accompanied by nausea following a cataract extraction is an indicator of increased intraocular pressure and should be reported to the surgeon immediately. Options 2, 3, and 4 are inappropriate actions.

Test-Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word, initial, and the word severe. Eliminate option 2 because this is not a normal condition. The client should not be turned to the operative side; therefore, eliminate option 3. From the remaining options, focusing on the strategic word will direct you to the correct option.
The nurse is developing a teaching plan for a client with glaucoma. Which instruction should the nurse include in the plan of care?

1. Avoid overuse of the eyes.
2. Decrease the amount of salt in the diet.
3. Eye medications will need to be administered for life.
4. Decrease fluid intake to control the intraocular pressure.

Rationale: The administration of eye drops is a critical component of the treatment plan for the client with glaucoma. The client needs to be instructed that medications will need to be taken for the rest of her or his life. Options 1, 2, and 4 are not accurate instructions.

Test-Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, client teaching for glaucoma. Recalling that medications are an integral component of the treatment plan will assist in directing you to the correct option.
The nurse is performing an admission assessment on a client with a diagnosis of detached retina. Which sign or symptom is associated with this eye problem?

1. Total loss of vision
2. Pain in the affected eye
3. A yellow discoloration of the sclera
4. A sense of a curtain falling across the field of vision

Rationale: A characteristic manifestation of retinal detachment described by the client is the feeling that a shadow or curtain is falling across the field of vision. No pain is associated with detachment of the retina. Options 1 and 3 are not characteristics of this problem. A retinal detachment is an ophthalmic emergency, and even more so if visual acuity is still normal.

Test-Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, manifestations of retinal detachment. Thinking about the pathophysiology associated with this problem will direct you to the correct option.

Rationale: A gradual, painless blurring of central vision is the chief clinical manifestation of a cataract. Early symptoms include slightly blurred vision and a decrease in color perception. Options 1, 2, and 3 are not characteristics of a cataract.

Test-Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word, early. Remember the pathophysiology related to cataract development. As a cataract develops, the lens of the eye becomes opaque. This description will assist in directing you to the correct option.
The client sustains a contusion of the eyeball following a traumatic injury with a blunt object. Which intervention should be initiated immediately?

1. Apply ice to the affected eye.
2. Irrigate the eye with cool water.
3. Notify the primary health care provider (PHCP).
4. Accompany the client to the emergency department.

Rationale: Treatment for a contusion begins at the time of injury. Ice is applied immediately. The client then should be seen by a PHCP and receive a thorough eye examination to rule out the presence of other eye injuries.

Test-Taking Strategy: Focus on the strategic word, immediately. Recalling the principles related to initial treatment of injuries and noting the type of injury sustained will direct you to the correct option.
A client arrives in the emergency department with a penetrating eye injury from wood chips that occurred while cutting wood. The nurse assesses the eye and notes a piece of wood protruding from the eye. What is the initial nursing action?

1. Apply an eye patch.
2. Perform visual acuity tests.
3. Irrigate the eye with sterile saline.
4. Remove the piece of wood using a sterile eye clamp.

Rationale: If the eye injury is the result of a penetrating object, the object may be noted protruding from the eye. This object must never be removed except by the ophthalmologist, because it may be holding ocular structures in place. Application of an eye patch or irrigation of the eye may disrupt the foreign body and cause further tearing of the cornea.

Test-Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word, initial, and note the word penetrating. This should indicate that a laceration has occurred and that interventions are directed at preventing further disruption of the integrity of the eye. The only option that will prevent further disruption is to assess visual acuity.
The nurse is caring for a client following enucleation to treat an ocular tumor and notes the presence of bright red drainage on the dressing. Which action should the nurse take at this time?

1. Document the finding.
2. Continue to monitor the drainage.
3. Notify the primary health care provider (PHCP).
4. Mark the drainage on the dressing and monitor for any increase in bleeding.

Rationale: If the nurse notes the presence of bright red drainage on the dressing, it must be reported to the PHCP, because this indicates hemorrhage. Options 1, 2, and 4 are inappropriate at this time.

Test-Taking Strategy: Determine if an abnormality exists. Note the words, bright red. Since an abnormality does exist, eliminate options that state to document and continue to monitor because an action is needed.
A woman was working in her garden. She accidentally sprayed insecticide into her right eye. She calls the emergency department, frantic and screaming for help. The nurse should instruct the woman to take which immediate action?

1. Irrigate the eyes with water.
2. Come to the emergency department.
3. Call the primary health care provider (PHCP).
4. Irrigate the eyes with diluted hydrogen peroxide.

Rationale: In this type of accident, the client is instructed to irrigate the eyes immediately with running water for at least 20 minutes, or until the emergency medical services personnel arrive. In the emergency department, the cleansing agent of choice is usually normal saline. Calling the PHCP and going to the emergency department delays necessary intervention. Hydrogen peroxide is never placed in the eyes.

Test-Taking Strategy: Note the strategic word, immediate. Focus on the type of injury and eliminate options 2 and 3 because they delay necessary intervention. Next, eliminate option 4 because hydrogen peroxide is never placed in the eyes.
The nurse is preparing a teaching plan for a client who had a cataract extraction with intraocular implantation. Which home care measures should the nurse include in the plan? Select all that apply.

1. Avoid activities that require bending over.
2. Contact the surgeon if eye scratchiness occurs.
3. Take acetaminophen for minor eye discomfort.
4. Expect episodes of sudden severe pain in the eye.
5. Place an eye shield on the surgical eye at bedtime.
6. Contact the surgeon if a decrease in visual acuity occurs.

Rationale: Following eye surgery, some scratchiness and mild eye discomfort may occur in the operative eye and usually is relieved by mild analgesics. If the eye pain becomes severe, the client should notify the surgeon, because this may indicate hemorrhage, infection, or increased intraocular pressure (IOP). The nurse also would instruct the client to notify the surgeon of increased purulent drainage, increased redness, or any decrease in visual acuity. The client is instructed to place an eye shield over the operative eye at bedtime to protect the eye from injury during sleep and to avoid activities that increase IOP, such as bending over.

Test-Taking Strategy: Focus on the subject, postoperative care following eye surgery. Recalling that the eye needs to be protected and that increased IOP is a concern will assist in determining the home care measures to be included in the plan.
Tonometry is performed on a client with a suspected diagnosis of glaucoma. The nurse looks at the documented test results and notes an intraocular pressure (IOP) value of 23. What should be the nurse's initial action?

1. Apply normal saline drops.
2. Note the time of day the test was done.
3. Contact the primary health care provider (PHCP).
4. Instruct the client to sleep with the head of the bed flat.