Chapter Seven Vocab

Click the card to flip 👆
1 / 164
Terms in this set (164)
trabeculaeA pair of cartilage bars in the vertebrate embryo which form the front part of the floor of the craniumparachordalsAlongside the anterior portion of the notochord in the embryo; designating the bilateral cartilaginous bars that enter into the formation of the base of the cranium.polar cartilagesgive rise to the pila antotica that form the back of the sella turcicaoccipital cartilageslobe is the visual processing area of the brain.nasaluttered with the soft palate lowered and with passage of air through the noseopticrelating to the eye or vision.otic capsulesA cartilaginous capsule surrounding the auditory vesicle during development, later fusing with the spheroid and occipital cartilages.ethmoid plateis a thin, flattened lamina, polygonal in form, which descends from the under surface of the cribriform plate, and assists in forming the septum of the nosebasal plateis the region of the neural tube ventral to the sulcus limitans.occipital archis the hinder limit of the skull; and the arch which is the beginning of the vertebral column may be termed the atlas, though it is not homologous in Amphibia and Amniota.branchial arches (gill arches)are a series of bony "loops" present in fish, which support the gills.pharyngo-branchialconstituting the dorsal bony elements in the branchial arches of fishes that in teleosts form four pairs two or more of which may be provided with teeth opposed to those of the hypopharyngealsepibranchialbelonging to the segment next below the pharyngobranchial in a branchial archceratobranchialeach of the paired ventral cartilaginous sections of the branchial arch in fishes.hypobranchialbeing the segment of a branchial arch between the basibranchial and the ceratobranchialbasi-branchialRelating to the bony base of gillsmandibular archthe first branchial arch of the vertebrate embryo from which in humans are developed the lower lip, the mandible, the masticatory muscles, and the anterior part of the tonguejawseach of the upper and lower bony structures in vertebrates forming the framework of the mouth and containing the teeth.palatoquadrateconstituting a series of bones or a continuous cartilaginous rod that forms part of the upper jaw or roof of the mouth of most vertebrates other than mammalsMeckel's cartilageis a transient supporting tissue of the embryonic mandible in mammals, and disappears by taking different ultimate cell fate along the distal-proximal axis, with the majority (middle portion) undergoing degeneration and chondroclastic resorptionhyoid archthe second visceral, or branchial, arch; the second postoral arch in the branchial archcomposite theoryis the study of partial differential equations with rapid oscillations in their coefficients.suspensoriumthe bony or cartilaginous element or series of elements that in most vertebrates below mammals connects the lower jaw with the craniumpaleostylicStage in which none of the arches attach themselves directly to the skull.euautostlylichaving the jaws connected directly with the cranium instead of indirectly by the hyoid arch —sometimes distinguished from holostylic to denote lack of fusion of the pterygoquadrate with the craniumhyostylicjaw suspension primarily through attachment with the hyomandibulasymplectic bonea bone found in fish skulls Symplectite, in reference to a mineral intergrowthmetautostylicjaw suspension in reptilescolumella (stapes)an ossicle of the middle ear of birds, reptiles, and amphibians.hyoid apparatusis a vestige of the gill arches of crossopterygians, which changed in the process of vertebrate evolution.craniostylicjaw suspension in mammalssquamosalthe squamous portion of the temporal bone, especially when this forms a separate bone which, in mammals, articulates with the lower jaw.dentarythe anterior bone of the lower jaw which bears the teeth. In mammals it forms the whole of the lower jaw (or mandible).incusa small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes.malleusa small bone in the middle ear which transmits vibrations of the eardrum to the incus.facial seriesEncircles the external naris and collectively forms the snout.maxillathe jaw or jawbone, specifically the upper jaw in most vertebrates. In humans it also forms part of the nose and eye socket.premaxillaIs one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.septomaxillaA bone that separates the premaxilla from the maxilla in certain animals.orbital seriesthe dermal bones encircle the eyelacrimala group of organs concerned with the production and drainage of tearsprefrontalrelating to or denoting a bone in front of the eye socket in some lower vertebratespostfrontala bone behind the orbit of the eye in some vertebrates.postorbitalsituated at the back of the orbit or eye socket, in particular denoting a process of the frontal bone which in some reptiles forms a separate bone.jugalthe bony arch of the cheekscleral ossiclesare bones within the sclera of the eyetemporal seriesLies behind the orbit, completing the posterior wall of the braincase.temporal notchis essential for effective adult tissue repair.intertemporalDescribing any relationship between past, present and future events or conditions.fenestraea small anatomical opening (as in a bone)supratemporalsituated above or relating to the upper part of the temporal bone or regiontabularhaving a flat surfacequadratojugaljoining the quadrate and jugal bonesvault seriesan arched or domelike structureroofing bonesAny of the bones forming the cranial vault of the vertebrate skull.frontalrelating to, or adjacent to the foreheadparietalof, relating to, attached to, or denoting the wall of the body or of a body cavity or hollow structure.postparietaldesignating either of a pair of bones behind the parietal bones in the skull of certain reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.parietal foramenA hole near the superior ( sagittal ) edge of the parietal bone of the skull through which a vein and sometimes an artery passes.palatal seriesThe palatines are dermal bones in the mid-palate.primary palateThe structure that is formed by the two maxillary and two medial nasal processes, and thatseparates the developing oral and nasal cavities.pterygoideach of a pair of projections from the sphenoid bone in the skull.vomerthe small, thin bone separating the left and right nasal cavities in humans and most vertebrates.palatineeither of two bones forming the hard palateectopterygoidThe external (lateral) pterygoid muscle. It brings the jaw forward.parasphenoidbeing a bone situated in the base of the skull of many vertebrates and developed in the membrane underlying the basicranial axismandibular seriesis a mobile, ring-like bone that frequently fractures in more than one location; these fractures are at risk for wound contamination with oral flora, may be complicated by teeth in the fracture line, and in some cases, can compromise the patient's airway.splenialsbeing a thin membrane bone on the inner side of the mandible of many vertebrates below mammals that resembles a splint and is usually in close relation with the dentaryangulara bone that is located in the jaw of some animals, such as birds, reptiles, amphibians and certain fish.surangularAbove the angular bone; supra-angular Noun surangular (plural surangulars) (anatomy) A bone of the lower jaw in many reptiles and birds.prearticularoccurring in, or being the tissues surrounding a jointcoronoidsA slender bone that forms part of the lower jaw of primitive vertebrates.mandibular symphysisline of junction where the two lateral halves of the mandible typically fuse at an early period of life (1-2 years)sphenoidhelps to connect the neurocranium to the facial skeleton. It is a single bone in the midline of the cranial cavity situated posterior to the frontal bone but anterior to the occipital.occipitalis the most posterior cranial bone and the main bone of the occiput. It is considered a flat bone, like all other cranial bones, meaning that its primary function is either for protection or to provide a broad surface for muscle attachment.basioccipitalpertaining to the bone in the base of the cranium, frequently forming a part of the occipital in the adult, but usually distinct in the young.supraoccipitalA bone on the dorsal side of the great foramen of the skull, usually forming a part of the occipital in the adult, but distinct in the young.exoccipitalsrelating to a bone or region on each side of the foramen magnum of the skullforamen magnumis a large, oval-shaped opening in the occipital bone of the skull.occipital condylea protrusion on the occipital bone of the skull that forms a joint with the first cervical vertebra, enabling the head to move relative to the neck.epipterygoid alisphenoidis an endochondral bone (derived from cartilage), similar to the braincase but unlike most other bones in the skull.upper jawOne of a pair of joined facial bones that form the upper jaw, the hard palate, part of the wall of the cavity of the nose and part of the floor of each eye socket.quadrateis the dorsal bone in the jaw joint with the anguloarticular of the lower jaw.lower jaw (mandible)It is the largest and strongest bony structure of the facial skeleton.mental boneThe oblique line of the mandible is where the depressor labii inferioris and depressor anguli oris emerge. These are associated with frowning.articular boneis part of the lower jaw of most vertebrates, including most jawed fish, amphibians , birds and various kinds of reptiles, as well as ancestral mammals.coronoid processthe anterior process of the superior border of the ramus of the mandibleramusthe posterior more or less vertical part of the lower jaw on each side which articulates with the skull.mandibular condyleThe rounded protuberance on the back of the mandible which articulates with the mandibular fossa in the temporal bone, as part of the mandibular joint.glenoid fossaA shallow depression on a bone into which another bone fits to form a joint, especially that on the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits.corpusthe main part or body of a bodily structure or organ the corpus of the uteruscornuaa horn-shaped anatomical structure (as either of the lateral divisions of a bicornuate uterus, one of the lateral processes of the hyoid bone, or one of the gray columns of the spinal cord) Other Words from cornustyloid processis a cylindrical, slender, needle-like projection of varying lengths averaging 2 to 3 cm.akinetic skullsAbsence or loss of the power of voluntary movement, due to an extrapyramidal disorder.gill lamellaeMulti-tissue structure that is the transverse vertical platelet on the gill filament, through which capillaries run.interbranchial septalies between 2 demibranchs of a gill arch Gill rakers protrude from gill cartilage & 'guard' entrance into gill chambercranial shieldis a group of eight bones that form a cover for the brain and brainstem.operculumthe fold of skin that covers the outside of the gill slits in the majority offish (except the shark and ray) and in the larvae of amphibians, especially tadpoles.lateral cranial fissurethe fissure separating the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebrum.autopalatineA paired bone in the roof of the mouth of fishmandibularthe horseshoe-shaped bone forming the lower jaw.ethmoidis a cubic bone, characterized by a porous appearance that makes it look like a sponge.orbitalis the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.oticooccipitalis the trapezoidal-shaped bone found at the lower-back area of the cranium.spiraclethe small external opening of a trachea (respiratory tube) or a book lung (breathing organ with thin folds of membrane resembling book leaves).opercular bonescontains four bone segments known as the preoperculum, suboperculum, interoperculum and operculum.extrascapularsAny of a set of pairs of bones in the neck area of some fishlabyrinthodont teetha type of tooth made up of infolded enamel that provides a grooved and strongly reinforced structure.ethmoid unitirregular, highly perforated bone of the cranium located between the eye sockets and running back to the frontal lobe of the brain.nasal sacDeepened nasal pits that develop into definitive nasal cavities.choanais the opening between the nasal cavity and the nasopharynx.external narisis the common name for the two anterior nares (singular: naris ) - the external openings in human nose that leads to the nasal cavity.orbitasphenoid boneA bone in the floor of the mammalian cranium, in the region of the optic nerve. In the human skull it is represented by the lesser wings of the sphenoid bone.prootic bonePaired cartilage bone that contacts the pterosphenoid anteriorly, the sphenotic and the pterotic dorsally, and the epiotic and basioccipital posteriorly.frontoparietalrelating to the frontal and parietal bones of the cranium.unidirectionaloperating or moving in one direction onlybidirectionalinvolving, moving, or taking place in two usually opposite directions bidirectional flow of materials in axons bidirectional replication of DNA Other Words from bidirectionalemarginationsHaving a shallow notch at the tiptranscranial jointAn anatomical study of three microsurgical intraorbital routes to the optic nerve and orbital apex, which can be reached through a fronto-orbital craniotomymetakinesisCranial kinesis involving jointing between the dermatocranium and occipital segment.mesokinesisCranial kinesis involving jointing that is more rostral in the skull than in metakinesis.prokinesisA form of upper jaw mobility, found in some birds and lizards, in which the upper jaw may be raised relative to the neurocranium by rotation about a hinge at their junction, anterior to the eyes.monokineticany of various soluble mediators of immune responses that are not antibodies or complement components and that are produced by mononuclear phagocytesdikineticis where you don't have control over your bodystreptostylya type of suspension of the maxillary apparatus of reptiles, whereby the quadrate bone movably articulates with the cranium.accelerator musclea muscle or nerve that speeds the performance of an action a cardiac accelerator.lingual processis a median rostral prominence of the basihyoid bone that dives in the root of the tongue and gives attachment to several musclescompound bonea joint composed of three or more skeletal elements, or in which two anatomically separate joints function as a unit.postorbital ligamentis the thickened edge of a septum dividing the orbital contents from the temporal fossa and is continuous with the temporal fascia.slider-crank mechanismis a particular four-bar linkage configuration that exhibits both linear and rotational motion simultaneously.zygo-matic archthe arch of bone that extends along the front or side of the skull beneath the orbitinterpartietalanatomy situated between the two parietal bones of the skull.auditory bullais a hollow bony structure on the ventral, posterior portion of the skull that encloses parts of the middle and inner ear.atlasThe uppermost, or first, vertebra of the spinal column.nuchal cresta crest that extends laterally across the back of the skull, forming an attachment point for strong neck muscles.temporal boneare a pair of bilateral, symmetrical bones that constitute a large portion of the lateral wall and base of the skull .tympanic bullais a hollow bony structure on the ventral , posterior portion of the skull that encloses parts of the middle and inner ear.petrosalpart of the temporal bone is pyramid-shaped and is wedged in at the base of the skull between the sphenoid and occipital bones.mastoid processa pyramidal bony projection from the posterior section of the temporal bone.turbinatesdesignating a small curved bone that extends horizontally along the lateral wall of the nasal passage in mammals and birds.nasoturbinatemaxilloturbinateethmoturbinatemesethmoidcribriform platemasticationhard platesoft platepolyphyodontydiphyodontysuction feedingsuspension feedinglingual feedingprehension